Silvia Arber in recognition of her elegant elucidation of brainstem mechanisms that control movement of the body.
Nicholas Spitzer in recognition of his discovery of neurotransmitter switching in single neurons of adult mammals, and his demonstration of causal links between neurotransmitter switching and behavioral state.
Patricia K. Kuhl in recognition of her fundamental discoveries concerning how human infants acquire language, and how brain structure and activity changes during language learning in both monolingual and bilingual children.
Winrich Freiwald and Doris Tsao in recognition of their ground-breaking discoveries of primate cortical areas that selectively encode visual information about faces, the computational principles underlying face encoding in these areas, and the implications of these discoveries for social cognition.
Wolfram Schultz in recognition of his discovery of reward-predicting signals carried by dopamine cells in the midbrain and the their critical role in reinforcement learning.
Catherine Dulac in recognition of her incisive studies of the molecular and circuit basis of instinctive behaviors mediated through olfactory systems in the mammalian brain.
Michael N. Shadlen in recognition of his pioneering experimental and theoretical studies of decision-making, identifying neural mechanisms that accumulate and convert sensory information toward behavioral choices.
Charles G. Gross “in recognition of his pioneering studies of the neurophysiology of higher visual functions and the neural basis of face recognition and object perception.”
David W. Tank in recognition of his pioneering application of intracellular recording and two-photon microscopy in awake animals, which has revealed new insights into the neural circuits underlying cognition.
Edvard and May-Britt Moser "in recognition of their discovery of grid cells in entorhinal cortex, and their pioneering physiological studies of hippocampus, which have transformed understanding of the neural computations underlying spatial memory."
J. Anthony Movshon“in recognition of his studies of how neurons in the cerebral cortex process visual information and how cortical information processing enables seeing.”
Eve Marder "in recognition of her comprehensive work with a small nervous system, demonstrating general principles by which neuromodulatory substances reconfigure the operation of neuronal networks."
Joseph E. LeDoux “in recognition of his seminal studies of the neural mechanisms of emotional learning, particularly fear learning and fear memory.”
William T. Newsome “in recognition of his pioneering studies of the primate visual system demonstrating the relation between perception and the activity of individual neurons.”
James L. McGaugh “in recognition of his comprehensive study of the biological processes that modulate the formation and consolidation of memory.”
Eric Knudsen “in recognition of his comprehensive study of visual and auditory perception in the owl and for his elucidation of how the auditory map is calibrated by the visual system during development.”
Richard F. Thompson in recognition of his distinguished contributions to understanding the brain substrates of learning and memory.
Jon H. Kaas. "In recognition of his comprehensive analyses of the primate cerebral cortex, its evolution, functional organization, and plastic response to injury."
Bruce McEwen. "In recognition of his extensive demonstrations of the role of circulating steroid hormones as regulators of neuroplasticity and behavioral adaption."
Masakazu Konishi and Fernando Nottebohm. "In recognition of their fundamental contributions in identifying the organization and function of the avian brain systems for learning and executing birdsong."
Horace B. Barlow. "In recognition of his fundamental contributions to understanding how the eye and brain accomplish vision."
Jean-Pierre Changeux. "In recognition of his pioneering, comprehensive studies into the fundamental molecular mechanisms underlying interneuronal communication and their role in network formation, learning, and reward."
Edward G. Jones. "In recognition of his comprehensive determination of the organization of the thalamus and the basis for the dynamic regulation of cortical excitability."
Charles Stevens. "In recognition of his penetrating contributions to synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity."
Michael Merzenich. "In recognition of his original contributions to cortical plasticity."
Michael I. Posner and Marcus E. Raichle. "Jointly, for their pioneering contributions to brain imaging."
Patricia S. Goldman-Rakic. "For seminal contributions to the current understanding of prefrontal cortex and its role in working memory and for effectively applying insights from basic biological sciences to mental health."
Mortimer Mishkin. "For his pioneering analysis of the memory and the perceptual systems of the brain, and his seminal contributions to the understanding of the higher nervous system function."
Larry R. Squire. "For his seminal contribution to the delineation of implicit and explicit memory systems in the brain."
Robert H. Wurtz. "For brilliant technical innovations in recording the activity of single visual neurons of alert, behaviorally-trained monkeys that made possible salient scientific discoveries relating individual nerve cells to visual perception and to the generation of eye movement."
Paul Greengard. "For his pioneering work on the molecular basis of signal transduction and vesicle mobilization in nerve cells."
Seymour Kety. "For major contributions to understanding the genetics of schizophrenia and depression, and for developing reliable methods for studying cerebral blood flow which paved the way for PET imaging of brain activity."
Sanford L. Palay. "For pioneering the study of the nervous system on the ultrastructural level, for revolutionizing understanding, and especially for his seminal contribution - characterization of the chemical synapse in the central nervous system."
Viktor Hamburger. "For pioneering the study of neuroembryology, and especially the landmark contributions to understanding neural cell death, nerve growth factor, and the developmental program for motor behavior."
Bela Julesz. "For his illuminating discoveries concerning the human visual capacity, particularly for stereoscopic vision, depth perception, and pattern recognition."
Gian Franco Poggio. "For discoveries of visual cortical mechanisms in stereopsis and depth perception which have significantly influenced modern studies of the brain mechanisms in vision."
Seymour Benzer. "A pioneer in using genetic techniques to study the genetic code and the transfer of information from DNA to proteins. By a brilliant selection of suitable experimental systems, he has succeeded over the last twenty years in advancing these techniques and applying them to the analysis of development and behavior. These contributions have greatly expanded the power of the genetic approach in neurobiology and fostered a merger between molecular biology and neurobiology that is having profound consequences on every aspect of the field."
Louis Sokoloff. "For his elucidation of the physiological and biochemical processes involved in the metabolism of the brain and the application of these discoveries to the measurement of functional activity within that organ."
Pasko Rakic. "For his seminal contributions to the field of developmental neurobiology through research on the development of the central nervous system."
David Bodian. "In recognition of his fundamental neurobiological studies studies that laid the foundation for the successful development of a vaccine against polio myetitis. He has continued to make important discoveries in the development and structure of the nervous system."
W. Maxwell Cowan. "For his long record of important contributions to understanding the embryological development of the brain."
Edward V. Evarts
Herbert H. Jasper
Eric R. Kandel
Curt P. Richter
Victor Percy Whittaker
Torsten Nils Wiesel and David Hunter Hubel
Roger Wolcott Sperry
Vernon Benjamin Mountcastle
Paul D. MacLean
Sir Wilfrid Le Gros Clark
Horace Winchell Magoun
Elizabeth C. Crosby
Theodore H. Bullock
George H. Bishop
Walle H . J. Nauta
Edgar Douglas Adrian
Rafael Lorente De No