Bryan Stevenson in recognition of his tireless advocacy on behalf of the most vulnerable in our society, from death row inmates to minors sentenced to life without parole; his pathbreaking efforts to combat racism and economic inequality in the criminal justice system as the director of the Equal Justice Initiative; his commitment to advancing the cause of truth and reconciliation by carefully documenting this nation's history of racial terror and lynchings as the founder of the National Memorial for Peace and Justice; and his dedication to educating and inspiring a new generation of lawyers as a Professor of Law at New York University.
Arlin M. Adams in recognition of contributions to public life reflecting the best skills a lawyer can possess: leader of the bar, distinguished judge, public policy advocate, settler of disputes, generous donor of time and talent.
John Hope Franklin. In recognition of his achievement as the first black American scholar to break triumphantly through the color barrier when he was appointed Chair of the Brooklyn College History Department in 1956, and in recognition of his pioneering role in rescuing African-American history from oblivion through seventy years of powerful scholarship and teaching, the American Philosophical Society salutes John Hope Franklin. His lifelong commitment to civil rights for all Americans, and his lifelong determination to combat racism in all of its ugly forms, has liberated us all.
In recognition of
- his lifelong dedication to public service, first as a member of the Georgia House of Representatives, then for 24 years as a U.S. Senator from Georgia, and now as Co-Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of the Nuclear Threat Initiative, as a distinguished professor in The Sam Nunn School of International Affairs at the Georgia Institute of Technology, and as chair of the board of trustees of the Center for Strategic and International Studies,
- his truly bipartisan commitment as U.S. Senator reflected in the landmark Department of Defense Reorganization Act, drafted with Senator Barry Goldwater, and the "Nunn-Lugar" Cooperative Threat Reduction Program which provides assistance to Russia and the former Soviet republics in securing and destroying their excess nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons,
- and, his tireless devotion and leadership in efforts to reduce the global threat from nuclear, biological and chemical weapons.
James D. Wolfensohn (presented in 2006)
In recognition of his strong and wise leadership as President of the World Bank for 10 years, 1995 to 2005. During his transforming Presidency, the World Bank firmly refocused on the war against global poverty as its primary mission:
- fought to beat back the HIV/AIDS pandemic and to improve the environment, education and health in developing countries,
- obtained debt reduction for 27 highly indebted poor countries,
- identified corruption as a major burden for the poor in developing countries and supported anticorruption programs in nearly 100 countries, and
- modernized and decentralized its own operations and made them more transparent and accessible.
And in recognition of his dedicated service in the most recent 12 months as Special Envoy in the Middle East to coordinate the Gaza Disengagement.
Sandra Day O'Connor. In recognition of her lifelong commitment to public service, including service in all three branches of State government in her native Arizona and, now for nearly twenty-two years, membership on the Supreme Court of the United States, and In recognition of the trailblazing example she has set for others as the first woman Majority Leader of a State Senate and as the first woman to serve on the Supreme Court, and In recognition of her contributions to the work of the Court in thoughtful and well-written opinions, and in recognition of her valuable participation in the efforts of American lawyers and judges to promote the rule of law in Central and Eastern Europe.
Mary Robinson. Distinguished legal scholar; Professor of Law at Trinity College, Dublin Exemplary barrister; devoted to human rights; admired legislator, member of the Seanad Eireann Beloved President of the Republic of Ireland; dedicated international public servant; United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights; tireless champion for the homeless, the dispossessed, and the oppressed. The American Philosophical Society salutes this daughter of Ireland and citizen of the world, and commends her unswerving devotion to human dignity and freedom.
Nelson Mandela. Steadfast advocate of justice, Tireless champion of freedom; the American Philosophical Society salutes this son of a chief and father of a nation, and recognizes his extraordinary contribution, not only to the citizens of South Africa, but also to countless men and women in other lands; Who, as a prisoner of conscience for 28 years, so used his captivity to instruct and inspire others, that the prison in which he was confined has now become a symbol of courage and hope, and a place of pilgrimage; And who, as leader of his people and their first elected president, led the way to equality, improved education, housing and economic growth, with vision, determination, energy and magnanimity, achieving reconciliation and cooperation between long-standing adversaries. In awarding Nelson Mandela the Franklin Medal, the American Philosophical Society salutes this international statesman and applauds his consistency of purpose, his resolute courage, his generosity of spirit and his inspiring example.
George Mitchell. In recognition of his distinguished service as United States Senator, Majority Leader of the Senate, and more recently, as trusted facilitator of the fragile dialogue that holds hope of bringing peace to Northern Ireland.
Alan Greenspan. In recognition of his leadership and his work as Chairman of the Federal Reserve Board. Their wise formation and skillful execution of monetary policy has contributed significantly to the longest period of prosperity in the United States on record.
William Scranton. In recognition of his leadership on the state, national and international level as a political leader who earned the respect of colleagues in both political parties, and his voice of reason guided important studies which revealed what troubled American society at home, and suggested paths toward greater amity among nations.
Edmund N. Carpenter II. In recognition of his fine intellect and love of his profession, as a lawyer of distinction in the state of Delaware, and his many contributions in politics, government, education, and the arts represent an example for all in the exercise of the responsibilities of citizenship.
William T. Golden exercised great leadership and wisdom during his successful campaign to make science policy a major consideration of government; his sage advice to U.S. presidents and his publications reinforced and broadened this basic contribution over many years; and his public service also encompasses effective support of education, the aged and infirm, and the environment.
Linus Pauling promoted significant improvements in public health by revealing major insights into proteins, Sickle Cell Anemia, and nutrition, and this recipient of a Presidential Medal 'for exceptional conduct' became an effective spokesman for civil liberties, courageously opposed serious challenges to free speech and academic freedom, and campaigned against war as a means of solving conflicts. In recognition of an inspiring career which demonstrates the value of a brilliant mind, boundless energy, and extraordinary courage expended for the betterment of all.
Walter H. Annenberg. With vision and energy, Walter H. Annenberg improved dissemination of knowledge through major publications, establishment of schools of communication, and promotion of public television; guided diplomatic relations with an important American ally; provided a distinguished art collection for public enjoyment; and promoted cultural, educational, and medical institutions.
Thurgood Marshall. In recognition of Thurgood Marshall who used his formidable legal skills to end the evils of discrimination and bring about a society in which "equal protection of the laws" could be a reality; became one of our century's legal giants during twenty-four years on the Supreme Court where he played a crucial role in enforcing the Constitutional protections that distinguish our democracy; and established an enviable record of opinions supporting the rights of the less powerful and the less fortunate.
Paul Mellon. With cultivated taste, discerning eye, and sound judgment, Paul Mellon has dedicated his life to the identification, preservation, presentation, and patronage of a wide array of achievements in the fine arts, history, literature, and philosophy, and thus become a model of a private man dedicated to public service.
Thomas J. Watson, Jr. The forceful and dynamic leadership of Thomas J. Watson, Jr., has moved the IBM Corporation into the computer field and underlay the longest and most extraordinary growth in modern business history, and his insightful efforts have encouraged progress in reducing the threat of nuclear weapons to world peace.
Warren Earl Burger. The leadership role of Warren Burger has improved the administration of the Supreme Court and federal courts throughout the land, and his excellent presentation to the public of the problems confronting the judiciary as well as the importance of the Constitution have greatly benefited the United States.
Margaret Thatcher's accomplishments have strengthened a vital western power by guiding Great Britain's economic recovery, by effectively asserting the nation's role in the international community, and by enhancing domestic stability as the first Prime Minister in modern British history elected to three consecutive terms.