Alar Toomre "in recognition of his beautiful and prescient numerical simulations over 40 years ago of the interactions of galaxies ("Galactic Bridges and Tails," carried out with his brother, Juri), and for his development a half century ago of the key local stability criterion (the "Q" criterion) for differentially rotating disks in galaxies.
Margaret J. Geller in recognition of her pioneering observations of the universe.
John E. Carlstrom for his role in measuring the anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background, and especially for his use of instruments based at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole station. This work uses the properties of one of the very harshest and most remote of places on the earth's surface to measure the state of our universe, very long ago.
Wendy Freedman for her role in determining the distances to 18 nearby galaxies with unprecedented accuracy, using the Hubble Space Telescope. She was the leader of the Key Project team, an extraordinary effort involving 27 scientists who collaborated to measure the expansion of the universe. Her careful science, strong leadership, and articulate presentations have helped to lead observational cosmology into the 21st century.
S. Jocelyn Bell Burnell for discovering the first four pulsars in 1967, thereby initiating a field of science that has flourished for a third of a century.
Bradford W. Parkinson for essential contributions to creating the Global Positioning System, thereby making the tools for precision navigation available to everyone.
Roger Easton for essential contributions to creating the Global Positioning System, thereby making the tools for precision navigation available to everyone.
Gordon H. Pettengill. One of the foremost radar astronomers of the past half century, who deserves major credit for the emerging picture of Venus, derived from the data gathered by the Magellan Spacecraft.
Edward C. Stone, scientific leader of the Voyager grand tour of the solar system planets.
Joseph H. Taylor for confirming Einstein's theory of gravitational waves from a binary star system.
George C. Weiffenbach. ". . . the entire group at Johns's Hopkins Applied Physics laboratory who developed this navigational satellite system, but in particular the first pioneers of the Doppler orbit technique [Guier and Weiffenbach].
William H. Guier. The highly precise system, the Transit Satellite Navigational System.
J. Frank Jordon for his role in the Voyager encounters with Jupiter, Saturn and their Satellite.
Martin Lindauer for studies in the field of animal orientation and flight guidance.
Robert Herman and Ralph A. Alpher for their prediction of black-body relict radiation from the early "explosion" of the universe.
Paul M. Muller and William J. Sjogren for their discovery of the lunar mascons (mass concentrations) leading to the first detailed gravimetric map of the moon.
W.H. Pickering for his leadership in the exploration of the Moon and Venus by jet-propelled vehicles.
Edward L. Beach, in recognition of his navigation of the U.S. submarine Triton around the globe.
Stuart William Seeley, in recognition of his work on Shoran.
Charles Stark Draper, in recognition of his pioneer work in modern inertial navigation.
Karl von Frisch for his studies of animal sense organs and his analysis of dance of bees.
Philip Van Horn Weems, in recognition of his invention of methods and instruments for celestial navigation.
James G. Baker, in recognition of his many distinguished contributions to theory and practice in optics, and especially for his design of the super-Schmidt meteor cameras.
Paul R. Heyl and Lyman J. Briggs for the Earth inductor compass.
Lewis M. Haupt for his work on the Physical Phenomena of harbor entrances.
Pliny Earle Chase for the Discovery of certain new relation between the solar-and lunar-dirnal, variations of magnetic force and of barometric pressure.
James P. Espy for A Theory of Rain.
Charles D. Brodie for his invention to repair the side of ships under the surface of the water.
James Ewing for his invention of an improved hydrant.
Josiah Chapman for an improvement in the manufacture of canvas.
James Humphreys for a model and description of steering apparatus.
John Garnett for a description and use of a new and simple nautical chart.
William Mugford for an account and description of a temporary rudder.
Benjamin Smith Barton for his work on a number of the pernicious insects of the United States.
Nicholas Collin for a description of a speedy elevator.
Robert Patterson for an improvement on metallic conductors or lightning-rods.
William Thornton for “Cadmus, or a treatise on the elements of written language...With an Essay on the mode of teaching the surd, or deaf and consequently dumb, to speak.”
Francis Hopkinson for the description of a Spring-block, designed to assist in sailing.