Benjamin Franklin Medal for Distintinguished Achievement in the Humanities or Sciences: 1985-1991
In recognition of a most distinguished astrophysicist, who: guided the development of controlled thermonuclear fusion through seminal theoretical research; directed the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory where his Stellarator was invented, demonstrated, and inspired others; and helped initiate astronomical observations from space and convincingly demonstrated their effectiveness.
James Bennett Pritchard
In recognition of his unexcelled eminence in Archaeological research and literary scholarship on the Ancient Near East and his remarkable ability to disseminate useful knowledge to the scholarly world and the intelligent general reader.
A monumental figure in biology and the medical sciences, whose unequalled productivity and energy have advanced, for more than half a century, the frontiers of basic research and clinical medicine.
Crawford H. Greenewalt
In recognition of significant contributions to high pressure synthesis of ammonia, and to the miracles of technology which brought nylon to the market; of wide-ranging scientific accomplishments, in particular his study of the flight and habits of hummingbirds; and especially for his vital role in the development of nuclear energy.
John Archibald Wheeler
In recognition of major contributions in a variety of fields, including nuclear fission, cosmic ray physics, structure and transformations of atomic nuclei and elementary particles, and general relativity.
Jonathan E. Rhoads
Jonathan Evans Rhoads, surgeon, scientist, scholar, and educator, long-standing member of the Society and its recent President, we salute you. Your many achievements in surgery have led to important publications concerned with trauma, cancer nutrition, antibiotics. Particularly important in all of your accomplishments was intravenous hyperalimentation, developed by you and your colleagues over many years of research in the laboratory and the clinic. Accepted in general practice, this method permits feeding by vein to speed the healing of wounds and postsurgical recovery and to provide nutrition to patients unable to receive it by other means. In your writing and in the many positions of leadership you have held in professional societies, boards, and commissions, you have guided American surgery for four decades and more. At the same time, you made significant contributions to medical education, to college educations, and to public school education in the city of Philadelphia. Your values have expressed themselves fully in our Society where your scholarship, your wisdom and judgment, your wit, and your leadership have served us all so well and still continue to do so.
In recognition of meritorious contributions to the science of medicine, which brought new insight concerning fundamental regulatory mechanisms in health, and the consequences of regulatory malfunctions, and for his perceptive grasp of the problems of world health and initiatives to ameliorate suffering on a global scale.
Samuel Noah Kramer
For his recovery of much of our early history that otherwise would have been lost and his relentless efforts to make widely known our debt to Sumer.
He has the distinction of virtually founding an entire field and method of study, pursuing it for some sixty years, and training, directly or indirectly, most of its students at the present time. His work is a landmark in the history of the exact sciences, and no scholar has contributed so extensively or profoundly to this important and difficult subject.
Helen Brooke Taussig
In recognition of her outstanding contributions to the understanding of congenital heart disease and the remediation of many forms of this disorder.
Charles Brenton Huggins
In recognition of his distinction in science and of his important contributions to human welfare. He has devoted his life to the study of cancer in man and in animals.