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Abstract

An evolutionist before Darwin, an embryologist, paleontologist, and comparative anatomist, Étienne Geoffroy Saint Hilaire was a Professor of Vertebrate Zoology at the Musée National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris for the half century following the Reign of Terror. Following in the footsteps of Lamarck, Geoffroy held tenaciously to a belief in the underlying unity of organismal design, to the great change of being, and the possibility of the transmutation of species in time, amassing evidence for his claims through research in comparative anatomy, paleontology, and embryology.

The Geoffroy Collection is comprised of 0.75 linear feet of lecture notes and correspondence relating to Geoffroy's diverse interests in natural history, Egypt, comparative anatomy, analogies, paleontology, and embryology, and it is particularly rich for his studies of teratology. All items are in French.

Background note

Etienne Geoffrey Saint-Hilaire (1772-1884) was a Professor of Vertebrate Zoology at the Musée National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris from 1793 until his death in 1844. He committed himself to developing a transcendant zoology and to the elucidation of the structural archetype underlying all organismal form. Along with his colleague Jean Baptiste Lamarck, he became one of the most influential of the pre-Darwinian French evolutionists.

Saint-Hilaire was born in the village of Etampes, the youngest of fourteen children of a local procurator. He was still a young boy when his precocious wit and charisma caught the attention of noted patrons. Made a canon in the church at the age of 15, he was preparing himself for a clerical life when he was introduced to the study of natural history by the renowned agronomist, the Abbé de Tessier, and by the great anti-Linnean botanist Antoine de Jussieu, his isntructor at the Collège de Navarre.

With his interests shifting, Saint-Hilaire’s plans made an abrupt turn with the onset of the French Revolution and the shadow it cast over the prospects for a clerical life. Gradually adopting a whole hearted Deism that became his hallmark in later years and taking up the revolutionary cause with zeal, the young savant followed his father's recommendation of studying law. He received his degree in 1790, then followed his own inclinations to study medicine at the Collège du Cardinal Lemoine. There he benefitted from a set of sterling mentors, most notably the great mineralogist René de Haüy. When Haüy was imprisoned during the Reign of Terror, however, Saint-Hilaire came to his rescue. Using his irreproachable revolutionary credentials and persuasive abilities, he had Haüy released, and in gratitude, Haüy's powerful friend Louis Jean-Marie d'Aubenton arranged for Saint-Hillaire to be appointed a demonstrator at the Jardin des Plantes, filling in for Bernard Germain Etienne de la Ville Lacepede, who had fled the violence. His timing was impeccable. When the Jardin became the Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle in June 1793, the 21 year old naturalist was appointed Professor of Zoology to fill Lacepede's still-vacant position. For the next 47 years he served the Muséum with distinction, rising to the Academie des Sciences in 1807, and adding an appointment as professor of zoology at the University of Paris in 1809.

From the beginning of his days at the Muséum, Saint Hilaire's aptitude for developing friendships with eminent scientists served him well. The much older Lamarck, in particular, became an intimate friend, but also an important intellectual influence in introducing him to the possibility of transmutation of species. For a time, he also gained the friendship of the young Georges Cuvier, whom he brought to Paris at the recommendation of the Abbé de Tessier. Initially, Saint-Hilaire and Cuvier worked cordially and cooperatively, sharing interests and enthusiasms. The period after Saint-Hilaire’s appointment to Napoleon's scientific staff in Egypt from 1798-1801 became something of a watershed in their relationship. As Saint-Hillaire plied the archaeological sites of Egypt, making collections of mummified birds, cats, and humans, Cuvier remained in Paris, building a reputation as an exacting comparative anatomist, who gradually began to oustrip Saint-Hillare. From that time on, their relationship deteriorated and an increasingly wide theoretical chasm grew between them.

Although at one time, both Cuvier and Saint-Hilaire had followed the Comte de Buffon in arguing that all vertebrates, and perhaps all animals, were derived from just a single archetype, during the first decade of the nineteenth century they began to diverge in theory and practice. Especially after Cuvier's return to orthodox Christianity (Saint-Hilaire remained true to Deism), the differences in their approach to organismal relations became the center of a sometimes bitter dispute. Saint-Hilaire clung to the archetype paradigm, arguing that vestigial organs, embryonic series, and the stunning diversity of vertebrates could be interpreted as evidence for a single underlying plan. Following his theoretical predispositions, he undertook pioneering research in comparative anatomy, embryology, and paleontology to examine the suites of "analogies" (modern homologies) linking organisms, using these as evidence to support the theory that simpler species transformed through time into more complex ones. Criticized by opponents for being too prone to grand theorizing and too quick to interpret the facts within his theories, Saint-Hilaire was nevertheless regarded as both insightful and brilliant. His most important works, Philosophie Anatomique (1818-1822) and Histoire Naturelle des Mammifères (1819) were the sounding board through which he developed the most important components of his transcendental biology: the law of connections ("analogous" organs retain the same connections amongst themselves), the law of permanence (new organs are not created), and the law of balance (the development of one organ is made at the expense of another).

A scrupulous worker, and more reticent to argue beyond the data, Cuvier advocated a strongly functionalist approach to comparative anatomy, insisting that similarities in form between different organisms were the product of common function, not common descent. Focussing on the differences between vertebrate groups, Cuvier rejected Saint-Hilaire's contention (as old as Aristotle) that vertebrates displayed a unity of anatomical structure, and he dismissed the notion of species transmutation as an unfounded speculation. In short, Cuvier argued that function was the overriding determinant of structure in vertebrates (form follows function), while Saint-Hilaire argued that structure was the product of a common plan from which functions were derived.

As Saint-Hilaire probed deeper into the analogies linking organisms, he turned increasingly to the study of early ontogeny, attaching himself to the nascent theory of recapitulation, and following his colleagues, coopting the embryological term "evolution" (used to describe ontogenetic transformations) to apply to the transmutation of species in geological time. Both he and Cuvier became increasingly truculent in their opposing views, and in 1830, Saint-Hilaire used the occasion of a paper delivered by two younger colleagues to attack Cuvier directly. Meyranx and Laurencet attempted to identify a set of structural analogies between vertebrates and cephalopods, and when Cuvier attempted to prevent its consideration before the Academie des Sciences, Saint-Hilaire attacked Cuvier directly. To settle their differences, Geoffroy and Cuvier agreed to conduct a series of eight public debates between February and April 1830, during which Cuvier accused Geoffroy and his followers of pantheism and groundless speculation. Cuvier died in May 1832 with the controversy still raging.

Undaunted, Saint-Hilaire continued to tow his belief in the great chain of being, deepening his investigations into teratology and early development. In large part, these interests sprang from the hope that "monstrosities" were a key to unraveling the mechanism underlying the transmutation of species, and suggested that the transformation between organic forms might occur very rapidly, rather than gradually. Although his son Isidore became well known for the study of teratology in the 1830s, Saint-Hilaire immersed himself in attempts to manipulate embryos during development to test his hypotheses. He also grew increasingly involved in the burgeoning field of paleoherpetology and in the search for fossils that might be placed as intermediates in series linking modern forms.

During the last decade of his life, Saint Hilaire's reputation suffered a further decline relative to Cuvier's, as he became increasingly vague and speculative. After 1834 the Academie published only the titles of his communications, and from July 1840 when cataracts left him blind, he suffered a gradual decline in physical and mental health that ended his scholarly productivity. Saint-Hilaire died in Paris in 1844.

Scope and content

The Geoffroy Collection consists of 0.75 linear feet of manuscript material relating to the French natural historian and proto-evolutionist, Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire. Comprised almost equally of notes for lectures and publications and correspondence to (and occasionally from) Geoffroy, the collection is particularly rich for documenting Geoffroy's interest in embryology and teratology, with some equally significant documents relating to paleontology, physiology and anatomy, Egypt, and his cosmic theories of organismal relationships.

During the 1820s and 1830s, Geoffroy was consumed with the study of teratology and the study of early ontogeny. Monstrosities and their implications for the transmutation of species are the primary subjects of almost half the materials in the collection, including several sets of notes as well as a wide range of letters from colleagues. Typically, these letters contain case histories of anencephalous infants, two-headed calves or horses, polydactyl horses, or conjoined twins, and at least three are illustrated.

The wealth of lecture notes form a second significant part of the collection. The material dating from prior to 1821 is almost exclusively comprised on notes for lectures or publication, beginning with two sets of notes on his Egyptian research, and including notes on anatomy and physiology, zoology, human history, ornithology, and the theory of analogies. Overall, they form a particularly valuable body for assessing the development of Geoffroy's scientific style and his theories of organismal relations.

Finally, the collection includes some miscellaneous notes on more general natural historical topics, including notes on marsupials, the aye aye, and large saurians, as well as examples of Geoffroy's cosmic musings, epitomized by his extensive notes on the "Notions synthéthiques, Physiologiques, et Historiques de Philosophie Nature" (1838), and his "Loi Universelle: Attraction de soi pour soi" (ca.1838).

Collection information

Provenance

Acquired in several lots, 1971-1983.

Preferred citation

Cite as: Étienne Geoffroy Saint Hilaire Collection, American Philosophical Society.

Processing information

Recatalogued by rsc, April 2003.

Related material

The Printed Materials Department contains several of Saint-Hilaire's major publications, including the following:

  • Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Étienne, Philosophie anatomique (Paris, 1818). Call no.: 591.12 G29p
  • Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Étienne, Principes de philosophie Zoologique (Paris, 1830). Call no.: 590.1 G29
  • Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Étienne, Recherches sur de grands sauriens trouvés a l'état fossile vers les confins maritimes de la basse Normandie, attribués d'abord au crocodile, puis déterminés sous les noms de téléosourus et sténéosaurus (Paris, 1831). Call no.: 568.1 G29r

Bibliography

Cahn, Theophile, La vie et l'oeuvre d'Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire (Paris, 1962). Call no.: B G287c.

Early American History Note

This manuscript collection falls outside the geographic scope of the Early American guide (British North America and the United States before 1840). It may be of interest to scholars interested in global history, international relations, imperialism, or the U.S. in the world.

Indexing Terms

Genre(s)

  • Engravings.
  • Lecture notes
  • Sketches.

Geographic Name(s)

  • Egypt--Antiquities.
  • Egypt--Description and travel

Personal Name(s)

  • Cuvier, Georges, 1769-1832
  • Dutrochet, Henri, 1776-1847
  • Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844
  • Hamont, Pierre Nicolas
  • Newton, Isaac, Sir, 1642-1727
  • Peschier, Charles-Gaspard, 1782-1853

Subject(s)

  • Anatomy--France
  • Beyond Early America
  • Conjoined twins
  • Dinosaurs
  • Embryology--France
  • Evolution (Biology)
  • Homology (Biology)
  • Light--Philosophy
  • Monsters
  • Natural history--France--19th century
  • Natural history--Study and teaching--France
  • Paleontology--France
  • Teratology
  • Zoology--Study and teaching--France


Detailed Inventory
Correspondence and notes
1811-1844 0.5 linear feet Request Series
Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844 .
Miscellaneous notes in Egypt
1798-1801, 1830s 37p. Box 1
Request File

Provenance: 1971-818ms

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844 .
Notes for a course on comparative anatomy
1812 30p. Box 1
Request File

Provenance: 1976-1484ms

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844 .
Letter to Emmanuel Baillon
1815 Oct. 17 3p. Box 1
Request File

Provenance: 1979-218ms

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844 .
Lecture notes
1816 6p. Box 1
Request File

Provenance: 1976-1483ms

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844 .
Preliminaires pour les cours des oiseaux et celui de la faculté
1816 10p. Box 1
Request File

Provenance: 1976-1626ms

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844 .
Lecture notes
1819 July 10p. Box 1
Request File

Provenance: 1977-2043ms

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844 .
Lecture notes on anatomy
1820 Feb. 26 3p. Box 1
Request File

Provenance: 1971-1819ms

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844 .
Lecture notes on Buffon
1820 6p. Box 1
Request File

Provenance: 1971-1819ms

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844 .
Notes on natural history
1820 March 3 3op. Box 1
Request File

Provenance: 1971-818ms

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844 .
Lecture notes on natural history
1820 6p. Box 1
Request File

Provenance: 1972-1394ms

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844 .
Lecture notes on man as a carrier of civilization
1821 Feb. 10 4p. Box 1
Request File

Provenance: 1972-1132ms

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844 .
Lecture notes on zoology
1821 Feb. 13 6p. Box 1
Request File

Provenance: 1972-1395ms

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844 .
Notes on anatomy and physiology
1821 Feb. 17 4p. Box 1
Request File

Provenance: 1971-818ms

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844 .
Re: zoology
1821 Feb. 20-24 8p. Box 1
Request File

Provenance: 1972-1396ms

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844 .
Re: human physiology
1821 Feb. 27 6p. Box 1
Request File

Provenance: 1972-1131ms

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844 .
Lecture on zoology
1821 May 3 3p. Box 1
Request File

Provenance: 1972-1130ms

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844 .
Lecture notes on the theory of analogies
1821 May 10 4p. Box 1
Request File

Provenance: 1972-1128ms

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844 .
Lecture notes
1821 June 4 5p. Box 1
Request File

Provenance: 1972-818ms

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844 .
Notes on comparative anatomy of mammals
1821 June 6 4p. Box 1
Request File

Provenance: 1971-1819ms

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844 .
Notes on reproductive anatomy
1821 June 8 4p. Box 1
Request File

Provenance: 1976-1626ms

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844 .
Theories d'analogues
1821 June 11, 13 6p. Box 1
Request File

Provenance: 1972-1397ms

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844 .
Re: a monstrous dog
1823 March 31 3p. Box 1
Request File

Headed: Séance de l'academie royale des sciences

Provenance: 1971-431ms

Dutrochet, Henri, 1776-1847.
Letter to Étienne Geoffroy St. Hilaire
1824 Nov. 18 10p. Box 1
Request File

Provenance: 1970-895ms

Roux.
Letter to Étienne Geoffroy St. Hilaire
1825 March 6 2p. Box 1
Request File

Re: anacephalous infant

Provenance: 1983-1622ms

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844 .
Notes made at the Jardin du Roi
1825 May 23-July 22 33p. Box 1
Request File

Notes on anatomy, reproduction, etc., p. 10-43 only

Provenance: 1970-1625ms

Peschier, Charles-Gaspard, 1782-1853.
Déscription d'un foetus monstrueux
1825 July 20 6p. Box 1
Request File

Provenance: 1983-1622ms

Portal, Placide.
Fetus humain avec deux têtes, né à Palerme le 25 Septembre 1825
1825 Sept. 25 4p. Box 1
Request File

Transmitted by Martin Portal tio Geoffroy. Includes engraving of conjoined twins

Provenance: 1983-1622ms

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844 .
Sur un nouvel anencéphale humain sour le nom d'anencéphale de patare
1826 Oct. 12 17p. Box 1
Request File

Made as a communication to the Academie Royale de Medecine on Oct. 12, 1826

Provenance: 1970-1681.bms

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844 .
Description d'un monstre humaine né dans les derniers jours d'aoust 1826, sous le nom D'agène
1826 Nov. 14 13p. Box 1
Request File

"Liré à la section de medecine, le 14 Novbre 1826"

Provenance: 1971-1819ms

Illeg. (Chef de Service d'Anatomie à Lyon).
Monstruosité (conjoined calves)
1827 June 9 4p. Box 1
Request File

Includes drawing of two headed horse, which may not belong to this letter.

Provenance: 1983-1622ms

Dussoteon(?).
Letter to Étienne Geoffroy St. Hilaire
1827 Oct. 29 2p. Box 1
Request File

Re: Monstruous fetus. Pleased that Isidore Goeffroy has been nominated to the Royal Society.

Provenance: 1983-1622ms

Extrait du narrateur de la meuse du jeudi 26 fevrier 1829
1829 Feb. 26 1p. Box 1
Request File

Includes ticket to the Museum d'Histoire Naturelle du Jardin du Roi

Provenance: 1983-1622ms

Hamont, Pierre Nicolas.
Observations communiqué par M. P. N. Hamont, medecin vétérinaire d'Alfot professeur de medecine veterinaire en Egypte au Service se S. A. Mehamet Ali Pacha
1829 April 27 3p. Box 1
Request File

Includes address sheet

Provenance: 1983-1622ms

Duran (de St.-Girons).
Histoire naturelle: Naissance extraodinaire
1829 May 24 8p. Box 1
Request File

Description of conjoined twins

Provenance: 1983-1622ms

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844 .
Sur un nouvel produit d'éspèce humain, frappé de monstruosité à quatre mois de vie intrautérine...
[1829] 18p. Box 1
Request File

Provenance: 1970-1681.bms

E. I. V. J..
Notes sur deux cas d'anéncephalie observé chez la même femme
1829 2p. Box 1
Request File

Provenance: 1983-1622ms

Duran (de St.-Girons).
Letter to Étienne Geoffroy St. Hilaire
1830 Jan. 11 3p. Box 1
Request File

Provenance: 1983-1622ms

Molinier.
Letter to Étienne Geoffroy St. Hilaire
1830 March 1 5p. Box 1
Request File

Provenance: 1983-1622ms

Cuilliard(?).
Letter to Étienne Geoffroy St. Hilaire
1830 March 3p. Box 1
Request File

Provenance: 1971-818ms

Guillard.
Letter to Étienne Geoffroy St. Hilaire
1830 June 13 2p. Box 1
Request File

Provenance: 1983-1622ms

Ledemé, H..
Letter to Étienne Geoffroy St. Hilaire
1830 Aug. 11 4p. Box 1
Request File

Provenance: 1983-1622ms

[Deslongchamps, Jacques Charles Eudes, 1794-1867]?.
Explication des planches x.i. et x.2 contenant les restes du Sténéosaurus
1830 Oct. 9 24p. Box 1
Request File

Provenance: 1971-818ms

Deslongchamps, Jacques Charles Eudes, 1794-1867.
Letter to Étienne Geoffroy St. Hilaire
1830 Nov. 19 2p. Box 1
Request File

Provenance: 1971-818ms

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844 .
De la Théorie du vitalism encore invoqué dans les études physiologiques
1830 17p. Box 1
Request File

Provenance: 1971-818ms

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844 .
Letter to Georges Cuvier
1831 Aug. 9 2p. Box 1
Request File

Provenance: 1971-10ms

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844 .
Letter to unidentified recipient
1831 Aug. 15 3p. Box 1
Request File

Provenance: 1971-818ms

Deslongchamps, Jacques Charles Eudes, 1794-1867.
Letter to Étienne Geoffroy St. Hilaire
1832 Jan. 5 3p. Box 1
Request File

Applauds successes of Isidore Geoffroy.

Provenance: 1978-476ms

Deslongchamps, Jacques Charles Eudes, 1794-1867.
Letter to Étienne Geoffroy St. Hilaire
1832 March 4 3p. Box 1
Request File

Re: nascent "science des anomalies de l'organisation" which Isidore Geoffroy has made his particular subject; regarding a two-toothed dolphin.

Provenance: 1978-476ms

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844 .
Sur de grands Sauriens trouvés à l'état fossile...
1833 43p. Box 1
Request File

Published in 1833, Memoires de l'Academie des Sciences.

Provenance: 1971-818ms

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844 .
Puissance du monde ambiant á l'égard des vegetaux
1834 26p. Request File

Provenance: 1977-743ms

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844 .
Fragment pour completer dans leurs principales parties, les théories de Newton sur l'atraction et sur la lumière; loi de soi pour soi
1835 April 27 27p. Box 1
Request File

Provenance: 1983-1622ms

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844 .
Notice historique sur un nouveau ouvrage (études progressives d'un naturaliste) redigée par l'auteur de ce livre
1835 27p. Box 1
Request File

Provenance: 1971-818ms

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844 .
Sur la lumière
1835 41 Box 1
Request File

Provenance: 1971-432ms

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844 .
Rapport du 19 xbre 1836 teratologique
1836 Dec. 19 5p. Box 1
Request File

Provenance: 1983-1622ms

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844 .
Feuillets paraissant appartenir á diverses rédactions de l'ouvrage suivant, no. 1 (Notions synthéthiques, Physiologiques, et Historiques de Philosophie Naturelle)
1838 ca.40p. Box 1
Request File

Provenance: 1971-432ms

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844 .
Feuillets paraissant appartenir á diverses rédactions de l'ouvrage suivant, no. 2 (Notions synthéthiques, Physiologiques, et Historiques de Philosophie Naturelle)
1838 ca.40p. Box 2
Request File

Provenance: 1971-432ms

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844 .
Loi Universelle: Attraction de soi pour soi #1
1838 36p. Box 1
Request File

Provenance: 1971-432ms

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844 .
Loi Universelle: Attraction de soi pour soi #2
1838 36p. Box 1
Request File

Provenance: 1971-432ms

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844 .
Recherche philosophique sur la nature des choses
1838 45p. Box 2
Request File

Provenance: 1971-432ms

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844 .
Sur la brochure de M. Richard Laming, physicien anglais
1839 May 27 5p. Box 2
Request File

Provenance: 1972-1393ms

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844 .
Introduction: Monde des details
1830s 4p. Box 2
Request File

Provenance: 1971-432ms

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844 .
Natural history, rules on life
1830s 4p. Box 2
Request File

Provenance: 1972-1127ms

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844 .
Sur le sens qu'il faut attacher as terms Spiritus corporens de l'oeuvre de St. Augustin
1830s 2p. Box 2
Request File

Provenance: 1976-1485ms

Fauvé.
Letter to Étienne Geoffroy St. Hilaire
1840 April 26 3p. Box 2
Request File

Includes two sheets of drawings of conjoined twins

Provenance: 1983-1622ms

Bailly.
Note sur un foetus monocle
n.d. 2p. Box 2
Request File

Provenance: 1983-1622ms

Deslongchamps, Jacques Charles Eudes, 1794-1867.
Memoir concerning monstrosities
n.d. 4p. Box 2
Request File

Provenance: 1983-1622ms

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844 .
Essai de détermination d'animaux sculptés dans l'ancienne Grèce...
n.d. 21p. Box 2
Request File

Provenance: 1971-818ms

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844 .
Lecture notes on animal fossils
n.d. 9p. Box 2
Request File

Provenance: 1979-935ms

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844 .
Lecture on zoology (evolution)
n.d. 12p. Box 2
Request File

Provenance: 1972-1129ms

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844 .
Materiaux sur la famille des lophies
n.d. 53. Box 2
Request File

Provenance: 1976-1627ms

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844 .
Mémoire sur un nouveau genre de quadrupedes de l'ordre Glires (L.) (on the aye aye)
n.d. 3 versions, 53p. total. Box 2
Request File

Provenance: 1971-432ms

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844 .
Miscellaneous notes on teratology
n.d. 17p. Box 2
Request File

Includes 4p. extracted from the Journal de Physique, April 1777, on an anencephalous infant.

Provenance: 1976-1486ms

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844 .
Notes on nature (for lecture?)
n.d. 7p. Box 2
Request File

Provenance: 1976-1625ms

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844 .
Notes on monstrosities and human anatomy
n.d. ca.50p. Box 2
Request File

Provenance: 1983-1622ms

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844 .
Notes on professional and course work
n.d. 45p. Box 2
Request File

Provenance: 1979-935ms

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844 .
Notes on zoology
n.d. 11p. Box 2
Request File

Provenance: 1979-1345ms

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844 .
Recherches sue le climat des animaux à bourses
n.d. 11p. Box 2
Request File

Provenance: 1972-1126ms

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844 .
Sur un cheval polydactyle
n.d. 15p. Box 2
Request File

Provenance: 1983-1622ms

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844 .
Sur un fetus de cheval polydactyle
n.d. 8p. (inc.) Box 2
Request File

Provenance: 1983-1622ms

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844 .
Sur un intepretation de ma lecture dans la derniere seance
n.d. 4p. Box 2
Request File

Provenance: 1971-818ms

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844 .
Letter to unidentified recipient
n.d. 1p. Box 2
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Provenance: 1971-818ms

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844 .
Letter to Frnaçois Laplace?
n.d. 3p. Box 2
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Provenance: 1977-744ms

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844 .
Letter to M. Pariset
n.d. 4p. Box 2
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Provenance: 1989-1153ms

Reid, John.
Case of monstrosity by inclusion in a bitch
n.d. 11p. Box 2
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Provenance: 1983-1622ms

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844 .
Lectures on the Natural History of Egypt
n.d. 1 vol., 98p. 508.962 G29
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Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 1772-1844 .
Notes on Natural History of Egypt
1825-1829 1 vol., 36p. 504 G29
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