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Abstract

An early settler and prominent citizen in the Moravian heartland near Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, Timothy Horsfield was named justice of the peace when Northampton County was formed out of Bucks in 1752, and was one of those given responsibility for the defence of the local white and Christian Indian populations during the French and Indian War.

The Horsfield Papers offer a window onto the tumultuous history of northeastern Pennsylvania during the 1750s and 1760s. Comprised largely of correspondence and related documents between Horsfield, William Parsons, and provincial and military authorities, the collection includes important information on the Indian assaults on the region in 1756 and 1757 and the military and diplomatic response.

Background note

Timothy Horsfield (1708-1773) was a butcher and prominent citizen of the Moravian town of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. He was appointed Justice of the Peace by Governor James Hamilton (1710-1783, APS 1768), when Northampton County was founded in 1752. At the outbreak of the French and Indian War, Horsfield was one of the citizens given responsibility for raising a local militia, mustering supplies, providing intelligence for the military authorities and caring for refugees. In July 1763 he was commissioned a colonel of the militia forces, a position he soon resigned.

Horsfield was born in 1708 in Liverpool, England, and was educated in the parish school. In 1725 he emigrated to Long Island, New York, where his brother Isaac taught him the butcher’s trade. He married Mary Doughty, daughter of a prominent Long Island butcher, in 1731, and in 1734 he became a freeholder. In 1735 Horsfield and his brother leased two stands in the Old Slip Market at the corner of Pearl Street and Old Slip in New York City.

In 1739 Horsfield, who was a member of the Church of England, attended a religious revival meeting of the Methodist evangelist George Whitefield, an event that impressed him. Subsequently, Horsfield became acquainted with the Moravian missionaries Peter Bohler and David Nitchmann, and later regularly opened his home near Brooklyn Ferry to other Moravian missionaries, who were traveling between Europe and the West Indies.

In 1748 Horsfield applied to the Bethlehem authorities to become a resident of the Moravian town. Although permission for him to settle there was not granted until the following year, he did place his children in the town’s Moravian schools in 1748. After Horsfield and his family took up residence in the Oerter house on Market Street they reserved two rooms for visitors to the the town.

Horsfield was the owner of two slaves when the family moved to Bethlehem from New York. His slave Joshua, better known as “Horsfield’s Tony,” was originally from Ibo in Africa, where he had been captured and sold into slavery at the age of 14. In 1750 Joshua was baptized by the Moravian bishop Cammerhoff, and sent to the Moravian colony of Christian’s Spring near Nazareth, Pennsylvania. There, as a result of the experience he gained working for Horsfield, Joshua secured employment as a butcher. Horsfield’s other slave, named Cornelia, was born in Red Hook, New York, in 1728 and died in Bethlehem in 1757.

In 1752 when Northampton County was created out of Bucks County, Governor Hamilton appointed Horsfield Justice of the Peace. His commission began on June 9, 1752, several years prior to the eruption of conflict between the Delaware Indians and British settlers on the Pennsylvania frontier. The influx of European settlers into the Pennsylvania hinterland and the concomitant dispossession of the Indians by legal and extralegal means (such as the notorious Walking Purchase of 1737) had fueled resentments that resulted in Indian raids against their white neighbors. Subsequently, the intertribal rivalry between the Iroquois and the Delaware, and the rivalry between the English and French, provided tinder for the French and Indian War that erupted in 1754. As a public official and a prominent citizen, Horsfield was one of those given responsibility for shoring up local defenses, raising a militia, providing intelligence to military authorities and caring for refugees. He was commissioned a colonel in the militia in 1763, an appointment that caused considerable jealousy. The resentment not only led to his resignation but also cost him his position as Justice of the Peace.

Horsfield died in Bethlehem in 1773. His wife Mary died later that year. The couple had eight children. They included Joseph, born in 1750, a delegate to the Pennsylvania Convention to ratify the Federal Constitution of 1787.

Scope and content

The Timothy Horsfield Papers offer a window onto the tumultuous history of northeastern Pennsylvania during the 1750s and 1760s. Centered in the region around Bethlehem, Pa., where Horsfield was justice of the peace, the collection is comprised largely of correspondence and related documents between Horsfield, William Parsons, and provincial and military authorities. The collection spans the period from 1684 to 1771, with the bulk from the late 1740s to the early 1760s. It includes particularly important and vivid information on the Indian assaults on the region in 1756 and 1757, and the military and diplomatic response. A typed table of contents is included in the box.

The Horsfield letters were originally laid into two volumes, which were disbound in 1984. The original numeration of the pages has been retained, however the letters have been rearranged in chronological and alphabetical order. Many of the papers bear marginal notations by John G. E. Heckewelder, through whose offices the papers were deposited with the Society.

Some of the earlier material relates to plans to survey land in Pennsylvania, including the “Plantable quantity of Land within the new Purchase” (11 September 1749). One interesting letter by the Count of Hohenlohe to the Governor requests that the Governor of Pennsylvania examine whether the father of a German immigrant from Hohenlohe had been cheated out of his rightful inheritance by a “newlander” (20 May 1752).

The majority of the letters in the Horsfield Papers were written during the critical months of October 1755 through August 1756, when northeastern Pennsylvania was embroiled in violence. There are several depositions and letters that describe the attacks on the community of Brethren at Gnadenhütten. There is also another, somewhat smaller clutch during the summer and fall of 1763 and scattered letters at other times. Concerned with local defense, the raising of militia, intelligence on Indian movements, and forging contacts with Indian allies, the network of Horsfield's correspondents included some of the most prominent figures in provincial Indian affairs, including Benjamin Franklin, Richard Peters, Conrad Weiser, governors Robert Hunter Morris, William Denny, and James Hamilton, and Moravian men of influence such as August Gottlieb Spangeberg and David Zeisberger. An equally prominent assemblage of Native Americans appears in the collection, including Delaware chief Teedyuscung, Lewis Montour, Kolapeeha, and the Mohawk Sachem, Jonathan.

The supremely violent events of the late fall 1755 are particularly well documented, including letters and several depositions relating to the Indian attacks at Penns Creek in October and Gnadenhutten in late November. The latter event underscores a running theme in the collection: the complex web of relations between Christianized (Moravian) Indians, the Moravian brethren, English settlers, and non-Christian Indians.

Collection information

Provenance

Donor, Joseph Horsfield of Bethlehem, through John G. E. Heckewelder, 1819.

Preferred citation

Cite as: Timothy Horsfield Papers, American Philosophical Society.

Processing information

Recatalogued by rsc, 2002.

Other finding aids

The Horsfield letters pertaining to Indian affairs are indexed in the online Daythal Kendal Guide to Native American Collections at the American Philosophical Society.

Related material

The Historical Society of Pennsylvania houses several Horsfield items, including the Timothy Horsfield Letterbook, 1754-1755 (Collection 296) and the Horsfield Receipt book, 1756 (Collection 297), and there are several letters of his in the Northampton County Papers (Collection 456). The papers of William Parsons (Collection 470) also contain valuable contextual material.

Early American History Note

Timothy Horsfield was a prominent official in Northampton County in Pennsylvania during the Seven Years' War and its aftermath. This relatively small collection contains a wealth of information on the war. The letters are content rich and often relay details on society and life in the area. MOLE contains a detailed inventory of the letters.

Indexing Terms

Genre(s)

  • Diplomatic Material
  • General Correspondence
  • Maps
  • Military Records
  • Official Government Documents and Records
  • Political Correspondence

Geographic Name(s)

  • Pennsylvania--History--Colonial period, ca.1600-1775
  • United States--History--French and Indian War, 1755-1763

Personal Name(s)

  • Croghan, George, d.1782
  • Denny, William
  • Franklin, Benjamin, 1706-1790
  • Hamilton, James, 1710-1783
  • Horsfield, Timothy, 1708-1773
  • Longshore, Robert
  • Morris, Robert Hunter, 1713-1764
  • Parsons, William, 1701-1757
  • Peters, Richard, 1704-1776
  • Read, James, 1718-1793
  • Reed, James
  • Scull, Nicholas, 1686?-1761?
  • Shippen, Edward, ca. 1703-1781
  • Spangenberg, August Gottlieb, 1704-1792
  • Teedyuscung, ca. 1700-1763
  • Weiser, Conrad, 1696-1760
  • Zeisberger, David, 1721-1808

Subject(s)

  • Colonial Politics
  • Delaware Indians
  • Diplomatic History
  • Government Affairs
  • Indians of North America--Pennsylvania--Government relations--To 1789
  • Iroquois Indians
  • Miami Indians
  • Military History
  • Moravian Indians
  • Moravians--Pennsylvania--History
  • Native America
  • Pennsylvania History
  • Seven Years' War


Detailed Inventory
Timothy Horsfield Papers
1684-1771 0.5 lin. feet Box 1
Request Series
5. Longshore, Robert.
The draught of the observation made of the river
March 26, 1684 1 map, 38.6 x 31.7 cm Request Item

Survey map plotting position of John Long House on New Jersey side of Delaware River relative to Philadelphia.

523. Brockden, C..
State of the case of C. Brockden in behalf of his Principal, the Master of the Rolls
1717 2p. Request Item
1. Paris, Mr..
An Exact Account of Lord Fairfax's title to lands in [the Northern Neck of] Virginia
Nov. 29, 1733 3p. Request Item

and of the printed map now sent which was made up by his commissioners, Description together with some acc't of another map made up at the same time by the king's comm. but wch being a manuscript cannot yet (if ever) be sent from hence...3p. Q. Manuscript.

9. Names of the Chiefs of the Indian's present at the Treaty held at Philadelphia
July 1742 3p. Request Item

Includes notes on other tribes with which the Six Nations are in alliance.

13. Peters, Richard, 1743-1828.
Richard Peters to William Parsons
Sept. 11, 1749 1p. Request Item

Directing him to survey the land between the Susquehanna and west branch of the Schuylkill, to fulfil the grant of ten percent on all plantation lands to the Proprietaries

11. Scull, Nicholas, 1686?-1761?.
Warrant of the Surveyor-General to survey ten percent of all vacant land in the Province
Oct. 4, 1749 1p. Request Item
19. Hohenlohe, Count.
Count Hohenlohe to James Hamilton
May 20, 1752 1p. Request Item

Dated Langenbourg, 1p. F. Manuscript. Respecting the effects of the late George Michael Weismüller, a blacksmith. Translation of a letter to the governor of Pennsylvania.

23. Levers, Robert.
Robrt Levers to William Parsons
Sept. 20, 1753 1p. Request Item

Dated Philadelphia, mentions that about 60 heads of the Twightwees are on their way to see the governor, 1p. 0. Manuscript. Freeman Guide 2219.

25. Hamilton, James, 1710-1783.
Summons to convene the Pennsylvania Assembly on August 6th
July 20, 1754 1p. Request Item

Dated 1p. Manuscript. Contains seal. Command to Nicholas Scull to summon the representative for the county of Northampton to a meeting of the Assembly on August 6th.

27. Reed, James.
James Read to Mr. Gordon [William Parsons?]
March 12, 1755 2p. Request Item

Dated Reading. Expressing anxiety for letters; stating the active preparations of the New Englanders for some secret expedition, and that a report was in circulation of the King's intention to draw the French from the Ohio. 2p. F. Manuscript. Mentions B.F. as chief cabinet councilor in Boston. (This letter might be addressed to a Mr. Gordon).

69. Weiser, Conrad, 1696-1760.
Conrad Weiser to William Parsons
Oct(?) 28, 1755 2p. Request Item

Dated Heidelberg, relating an Indian attack and asking advice. 2p. F. Manuscript. Freeman Guide 2867.

31. Shippen, Edward.
to unidentified recipient
Oct. 29, 1755 1p. Request Item

Dated Lancaster, relative to sending lead and shot and stating that meeting were being held for defence and that a report was current that a body of French and Indians was seen near Carlisle. 1p. O. Manuscript. Freeman Guide 1381.

33. Potts, John.
to Robert Hunter Morris
Oct. 31, 1755 1p. Request Item

Potts, James Read, Conrad Weiser and others to the governor of Pennsylvania dated stating their distress and threatening to quarter themselves on inhabitants of Philadelphia if not supported. 1p. F. Manuscript. Copy.

35. Weiser, Conrad, 1696-1760.
to William Parsons
Nov. 1, 1755 1p. Request Item

Dated Heidleberg, the first. Wishes to see him (written under much anxiety). 1p. F. Manuscript.

37. Horsfield, Timothy, 1708-1773.
to Robert Hunter Morris
Nov. 2, 1755 1p. Request Item

Dated Bethlehem, enclosing an examination of two of the United Brethren on their return from preaching (no.39), respecting an attack made by the French Mohawk Indians near the Susquehanna on 20th Oct. 4p. O. and F. Manuscript. Copy. Freeman Guide 2264.

39. Horsfield, Timothy, 1708-1773.
Deposition of Christian Seidle and David Zeisberger
Nov. 10, 1755 3p. Request Item

Examination on their return from preaching, respecting, an attack made by the French Mohawk Indians near the Susquehanna on 20th October.

43. Horsfield, Timothy, 1708-1773.
to Robert Hunter Morris enclosing, deposition of Phillip Wesa and Godfrey Resler
Nov. 10-15, 1755 1p. Request Item

Respecting outrage of Oct. 26th

45. Wesa, Phillip .
Deposition
Nov. 10-15, 1755 3p. Request Item

Enclosed in letter no. 43, respecting outrage of Oct. 26th

51. Schmick, John and Henry Fry.
Deposition
Nov. 15, 1755 4p. Request Item

Enclosed in no. 43, respecting outrage of Oct. 26th

59. Levan, Jacob.
to Peter Trexler
Nov. 17, 1755 2p. Request Item

In German, respecting the Indian murders.

61. Zeisberger, David, 1721-1808.
Deposition
Nov. 22, 1755 1p. Request Item

Relating to Oct. 26 attack.

63. Horsfield, Timothy, 1708-1773.
to Joseph Powell
Nov. 23, 1755 1p. Request Item

Respecting a convoy for the Indians to Philadelphia.

65. Horsfield, Timothy, 1708-1773.
Address to the inhabitants of Northhampton County
Nov. 24, 1755 1p. Request Item
55. Horsfield, Timothy, 1708-1773.
to Robert Hunter Morris
Nov. 26, 1755 3p. Request Item

Detailing the particulars of the outrage of Oct. 26, with list of those killed.

67. Horsfield, Timothy, 1708-1773.
to Robert Hunter Morris
Nov. 27, 1755 1p. Request Item

Detailing the sufferings of the Brethren and requesting advice.

73. Morris, Robert Hunter, 1713-1764.
to William Parsons
Nov. 29, 1755 1p. Request Item

Acknowledging letters; expressing concern at the outrages of the Indians; hopes for the adoption of measures of defense; thanks for intelligence, etc.

Access digital object:
http://cdm.amphilsoc.org/u?/earlyam,293

75. Morris, Robert Hunter, 1713-1764.
to Timothy Horsfield
Nov. 29, 1755 1p. Request Item
521. Account of a murder at Mahony, with the names of the murdered
Nov. 1755 2p. Request Item
531. Morris, Robert Hunter, 1713-1764.
Address to the Indians lately residing at Gnadenhütten -- now at Bethlehem, to the Governor of the province
Nov. 1755 2p. Request Item
77. Horsfield, Timothy, 1708-1773.
to Robert Hunter Morris
Dec. 1, 1755 1p. Request Item

Acknowledging preceding; encloses address of the Indians, and stating the dispatch of 12 wagons of grain for the Indians

79. Morris, Robert Hunter, 1713-1764.
to Timothy Horsfield
Dec. 4, 1755 1p. Request Item

Re: building a fort at Gnadenhütten

81. Morris, Robert Hunter, 1713-1764.
To the Indians lately residing at Gnadenhütten and now at Bethlehem
Dec. 4, 1755 2p. Request Item

Address promising protection and expressing commiseration for their losses

85. Morris, Robert Hunter, 1713-1764.
to Timothy Horsfield
Dec. 4, 1755 1p. Request Item

Copy of some data at p.79

87. Franklin, Benjamin, 1706-1790.
to William Parsons
Dec. 5, 1755 3p. Request Item

£60,000 has been granted for defense of the Province and a militia act passed; advising of the despatch of arms and ammunition

423. Horsfield, Timothy, 1708-1773.
to Robert Hunter Morris
Dec. 8, 1755 2p. Request Item

Re: building a fort at Gnadenhütten

49. Hays, William.
to William Parsons
Dec. 10, 1755 1p. Request Item

Re: 6 guns sent by mistake to Easton

80. Horsfield, Timothy, 1708-1773.
to William Parsons
Dec. 14, 1755 3p. Request Item

Detailing his perplexity and soliciting advice regarding the terrified back inhabitants

93. Morris, Robert Hunter, 1713-1764.
to Timothy Horsfield
Dec. 14, 1755 2p. Request Item

Expressing regret at the outrages of the Indians, and a hope that he would continue to act for the public

347. Morris, Robert Hunter, 1713-1764.
to Timothy Horsfield
Dec. 14, 1755 1p. Request Item

Hoping he will continue to act for public safety, etc.

95. Franklin, Benjamin, 1706-1790.
to William Parsons
Dec. 15, 1755 1p. Request Item

Advising of assistance and enclosing £20 for relief of fugitives

97. Spangenberg, August Gottlieb, 1704-1792.
to Timothy Horsfield
Dec. 17, 1755 1p. Request Item

Requesting men, previous to an attack by the Indians on Nazareth

Franklin, Benjamin, 1706-1790.
to Timothy Horsfield
Jan. 16, 1756 Request Item

Recommends Mrs. McClean as an object of charity (see Horsfield papers, v.1, p.127-128).

127. Franklin, Benjamin, 1706-1790.
to Timothy Horsfield
Jan. 16, 1756 1p. Request Item

Introducing Mr. McClear as entitled to relief

99. Horsfield, Timothy, 1708-1773.
to William Parsons
Jan. 25, 1756 1p. Request Item

Forwarding an extract from Benjamin Franklin's letter relative to detachments

101. Franklin, Benjamin, 1706-1790.
to Timothy Horsfield
Jan. 28, 1756 2p. Request Item

Arrival of wagons

103. Weiser, Conrad, 1696-1760.
to William Parsons
Feb. 13, 1756 4p. Request Item

Indian intelligence; death of son-in-law

539. Rough sketch of [illeg] of the Brethren remonstrating against placing more Indians at Bethlehem bringing on by Capt. New Caste
ca. April 1756 3p. Request Item
105. Franklin, Benjamin, 1706-1790.
to Timothy Horsfield
March 1, 1756 2p. Request Item

Directing disbursements

107. Martin, James.
to William Parsons
March 8, 1756 1p. Request Item

Burning of his barn by the Indians

109. Parsons, William, 1701-1757.
to Timothy Horsfield
March 9, 1756 1p. Request Item

Alluding to burning of James Martin's, and stating that assistance was sent

111. Parsons, William, 1701-1757.
to Timothy Horsfield
March 11, 1756 1p. Request Item
113. Weiser, Conrad, 1696-1760.
to William Parsons
May 6, 1756 1p. Request Item

Enclosing Indian treaty

115. Newcastle, Capt..
Report of his embassy to the hostile Indians on the Susquehanna
June 1, 1756 6p. Request Item
123. Franklin, Benjamin, 1706-1790.
to William Parsons
June 10, 1756 1p. Request Item

Advising of his return from Virginia and desiring to know present state of country

125. Unidentified.
Copy of a letter to Timothy Horsfield and Edmonds
June 15, 1756 1p. Request Item

concerning the scalping party at Paulinskill and the five Indians now at Bethlehem on their way [to] Tiohogou

129. Parsons, William, 1701-1757.
to Benjamin Franklin
June 19, 1756 1p. Request Item

Respecting a review of Forts

133. Franklin, William.
to Timothy Horsfield
June 21, 1756 1p. Request Item

Respecting exchange of arms

131. Horsfield, Timothy, 1708-1773.
to Robert Hunter Morris
June 21, 1756 1p. Request Item

Respecting the Indians

135. Morris, Robert Hunter, 1713-1764.
to Timothy Horsfield
June 22, 1756 1p. Request Item

Acknowledging preceding (no. 133) and directing instructions to Capt. Newcastle

333. Morris, Robert Hunter, 1713-1764.
to Timothy Horsfield
June 22, 1756 1p. Request Item

Requesting Brethren receive and maintain friendship of Indians at Bethlehem

137. Franklin, Benjamin, 1706-1790.
to William Parsons
June 28, 1756 2p. Request Item

Acknowledging letter of the 19th; arrival of British regiments and doubts of their movements

141. Memorandum of what Capt. Newcastle gave us
June 28, 1756 1p. Request Item
143. Newcastle, Capt..
Instructions to the Brethren respecting friendly Indians
June 28, 1756 1p. Request Item
145. Memorandum of an acct. the Indian Nicodemus
June 30, 1756 2p. Request Item

Memo re: unfriendly Indians

147. Peters, Richard, 1743-1828.
to Timothy Horsfield
June 30, 1756 1p. Request Item

Introducing Lieut. Johannes Schlösser and requesting for him all assistance and advice

149. Parsons, William, 1701-1757.
to Timothy Horsfield
June 30, 1756 1p. Request Item

Acknowledging receipt of Capt. Newcastle's directons

151. Peters, Richard, 1743-1828.
to Timothy Horsfield
June 30, 1756 1p. Request Item

Copy of letter of introduction for Lieut. Johannes Schlösser

155. Newcastle, Capt..
to Augustus Gottlieb Spangenberg
July 11, 1756 1p. Request Item

Re: Pockschnos, the Shawanese chief having gone to a council at Sir W. Johnson's

157. Schlösser, Johannes.
Advertisement for recruits
July 2, 1756 2p. Request Item

In German and English

159. Schlösser, Johannes.
Advertisement for recruits
July 2, 1756 1p. Request Item

Original of No. 157 in English and German

161. Horsfield, Timothy, 1708-1773.
to William Parsons
July 3, 1756 2p. Request Item

Re: Lt. Schlosser and about the Indians

165. Parsons, William, 1701-1757.
to Timothy Horsfield
July 3, 1756 1p. Request Item

Re: to preceding (no. 161), and giving substance of B. Franklin's letter of June 28th

335. Morris, Robert Hunter, 1713-1764.
to Timothy Horsfield
July 4, 1756 1p. Request Item

Requesting to retain Indians until Commissioners appoint other plans

171. Morris, Robert Hunter, 1713-1764.
to Timothy Horsfield
July 4, 1756 1p. Request Item

Re: Indians

173. Weiser, Conrad, 1696-1760.
to William Parsons
July 4, 1756 2p. Request Item

Re: outrages of Indians

175. Orndt, Jacob.
to William Parsons
July 6, 1756 1p. Request Item

Re: the murder of four men by the Indians; and about blankets

177. Horsfield, Timothy, 1708-1773.
To William Parsons
July 7, 1756 1p. Request Item

Acquainting him of arrival of Indians and of his having sent express to the Governor

179. Parsons, William, 1701-1757.
to Timothy Horsfield
July 8, 1756 1p. Request Item

Thanking him for preceding intelligence

181. Parsons, William, 1701-1757.
to Timothy Horsfield
July 8, 1756 1p. Request Item

Requesting him to delay the Indians for the Governor's answer, and not to supply powder and shot

183. Horsfield, Timothy, 1708-1773.
to William Parsons
July 8, 1756 1p. Request Item

Acknowledging preceding. Stating that 4 Indians wish to return home requesting a guard for them and desiring to know whether he shall supply powder and shot

187. Horsfield, Timothy, 1708-1773.
to William Parsons
July 9, 1756 Request Item

In reply to preceding

189. Horsfield, Timothy, 1708-1773.
to William Parsons
July 9, 1756 1p. Request Item

Referring to Capt. Inslee

193. Morris, Robert Hunter, 1713-1764.
to Timothy Horsfield
July 9, 1756 1p. Request Item

Regretting that the Indians could not go to him; desiring them to be supplied with provisions and ammunition, and to send them away well satisfied

337. Morris, Robert Hunter, 1713-1764.
to Timothy Horsfield
July 9, 1766 1p. Request Item

Desiring acknowledgements to Mr. Spangenberg for his trouble in Indian Affairs

191. Parsons, William, 1701-1757.
to Timothy Horsfield
July 9, 1756 1p. Request Item

Suggesting giving a small quantity of ammunition to the Indians

195. Parsons, William, 1701-1757.
to Timothy Horsfield
July 9, 1756 1p. Request Item

Suggesting giving a small quantity of ammunition to the Indians (original of no. 191)

199. Horsfield, Timothy, 1708-1773.
to William Parsons
July 10, 1756 1p. Request Item

Enclosing speech intended for Indians, and his intentions about provisions and ammunition

201. Weiser, Conrad, 1696-1760.
to the Commanding Officers of Each Company and Detachment in the First Battalion in the Pennsylvania Regiment
July 10, 1756 1p. Request Item

Enclosing Governor's orders about absences

205. Reynolds, George.
to William Parsons
July 10, 1756 1p. Request Item

Insufficiency of arms and ammunition at Fort Allen

207. Parsons, William, 1701-1757.
to Timothy Horsfield
July 10, 1756 1p. Request Item

Acknowledging July 10, and approving his plans

209. Morris, Robert Hunter, 1713-1764.
to Timothy Horsfield
July 11, 1756 1p. Request Item

Intentions of removing Indians from Bethlehem to Easton; the Proclamation for suspension of hostility is continued for thirty days longer

217. Morris, Robert Hunter, 1713-1764.
to Timothy Horsfield
July 11, 1756 1p. Request Item

Original of no. 209

211. Morris, Robert Hunter, 1713-1764.
to William Parsons
July 11, 1756 1p. Request Item

Re: removing the Indians

215. Morris, Robert Hunter, 1713-1764.
to William Parsons
July 11, 1756 1p. Request Item

Desiring him to afford protection to an individual to get in harvest

219. Horsfield, Timothy, 1708-1773.
to William Parsons
July 13, 1756 1p. Request Item

Respecting Indians

221. Reynolds, George.
to W. Edwards
July 14, 1756 1p. Request Item

Probable arrival of Indians at Fort Allen and of his going to meet Capt. Newcastle

225. Parsons, William, 1701-1757.
to Timothy Horsfield
July 14, 1756 1p. Request Item

Expressing difficulty about arranging Indians

227. Parsons, William, 1701-1757.
to William Edmonds
July 15, 1756 1p. Request Item

Intentions of going to Bethlehem to confer about removal of Indians

167. Morris, Robert Hunter, 1713-1764.
Instructions to Conrad Weiser for the First Battalion of the Pennsylvania regiment
July 17, 1756 2p. Request Item

Regulating the officers and soldiers absences, and ordering then, as guards to the harvest labourers

229. Parsons, William, 1701-1757.
to Timothy Horsfield
July 18, 1756 1p. Request Item

Arrival in Easton

231. Teedyuscung.
Message to the Governor upon his arrival
July 18, 1756 1p. Request Item
233. Morris, Robert Hunter, 1713-1764.
to William Parsons
July 22, 1756 1p. Request Item

Changing the intention of meeting Indians and desiring detachments to be drawn in and sent to Bethlehem

237. Morris, Robert Hunter, 1713-1764.
to Timothy Horsfield
July 22, 1756 1p. Request Item

Acknowledging intelligence communicated by King Teedyuscung approving of his having sent express and notifying change of place of meeting Indians

239. Peters, Richard, 1743-1828.
to William Parsons
July 22, 1756 1p. Request Item

Advising of Governor and suite going to Easton

241. Horsfield, Timothy, 1708-1773.
to William Parsons
July 23, 1756 1p. Request Item

Stating intention of Governor

245. Horsfield, Timothy, 1708-1773.
to William Parsons
July 23, 1756 1p. Request Item

Sending shirt for Ben

247. Barons, Benjamin.
to Timothy Horsfield
July 24, 1756 1p. Request Item

Acknowledging his communication of Indian intelligence (no. 237)

249. Morris, Robert Hunter, 1713-1764.
Order to Conrad Weiser
July 30, 1756 1p. Request Item

To hold a Court Martial for trial of two soldiers for sleeping on duty

251. Morris, Robert Hunter, 1713-1764.
Proceedings of Court Martial and acquittal of prisoners
July 30, 1756 1p. Request Item
255. Horsfield, Timothy, 1708-1773.
to William Parsons
Aug. 9, 1756 2p. Request Item

Desiring an escort for Indians

257. Teedyuscung.
letter to Timothy Horsfield and William Parsons
Aug. 9, 1756 1p. Request Item
259. Peters, Richard, 1743-1828.
to William Parsons
Aug. 11, 1756 1p. Request Item
263. Horsfield, Timothy, 1708-1773.
to King Teedyuscung
Aug. 12, 1756 1p. Request Item

In answer to his of August 9th

261. Reynolds, George.
to William Parsons
Aug. 12, 1756 1p. Request Item

Concerning a shed for Indians and a guard in his absence

253. Widerhold, John Nicholus.
Substance of Capt. Widerhold's letter giving an account of disturbances at Fort Allen
Aug. 12, 1756 1p. Request Item
265. Morris, Robert Hunter, 1713-1764.
to Timothy Horsfield
Aug. 13, 1756 2p. Request Item

Complaining of Teedyuscung's delaying his journey so shamefully

339. Morris, Robert Hunter, 1713-1764.
to Timothy Horsfield
Aug. 13, 1756 1p. Request Item

Desiring Indians left by the King to be sent to Bethlehem

267. Orndt, Jacob.
to William Parsons
Aug. 13, 1756 1p. Request Item

Murder committed by the Indians on harvest guard

269. Parsons, William, 1701-1757.
draft to Robert Hunter Morris
Aug. 14, 1756 2p. Request Item

Re: Fort Allen and Teedyuscung

271. Horsfield, Timothy, 1708-1773.
to William Parsons
Aug. 15, 1756 1p. Request Item

Enclosing Governor's letter

273. Parsons, William, 1701-1757.
to Robert Hunter Morris
Aug. 15, 1756 3p., 2p. Request Item

Re: disorders at Fort Allen (with duplicate)

281. Morgan, Jacob.
To Timothy Horsfield(?)
Aug. 19, 1756 1p. Request Item

Fort Granville was taken by French and Indians

283. Horsfield, Timothy, 1708-1773.
to William Parsons
Aug. 19, 1756 1p. Request Item

Concerning some bad designs he had heard of Indians

285. Parsons, William, 1701-1757.
to Robert Hunter Morris
Aug. 21, 1756 2p. Request Item

Re: Indians at Fort Allen

288. Peters, Richard, 1743-1828.
to William Parsons
Aug. 21, 1756 2p. Request Item

Col. William Denny is appointed Governor

292. Denny, William .
to Conrad Weiser
Aug. 21, 1756 2p. Request Item

Concerning an intended attack upon Bethlehem and disorders at Fort Allen

296. Peters, Richard, 1743-1828.
to William Parsons
Aug. 22, 1756 1p. Request Item

Acknowledging letters

300. Weiser, Conrad, 1696-1760.
to William Parsons
Aug 24, 1756 2p. Request Item

Requiring his attendance at Bethlehem

302. Orndt, Jacob.
to Conrad Weiser
Aug. 24, 1756 2p. Request Item

Re: conduct of Lt. Miller

306. Parsons, William, 1701-1757.
to Benjamin Franklin
Aug. 25, 1756 1p. Request Item

Enclosing a bill of exchange of Mr. Nugent's

308. Reynolds, George.
to Conrad Weiser
Aug. 26, 1756 1p. Request Item

Complaining of attacks on his character

312. Peters, Richard, 1743-1828.
to Timothy Horsfield
Sept. 6, 1756 1p. Request Item

Thanks for attention to Indian affairs

341. Peters, Richard, 1743-1828.
to Timothy Horsfield
Sept. 6, 1756 1p. Request Item

Thanks for attention to Indian affairs (copy of no. 312)

314. Horsfield, Timothy, 1708-1773.
to William Denny
Oct. 27, 1756 1p. Request Item

Concerning Indians

316. Horsfield, Timothy, 1708-1773.
to Benjamin Franklin, Fox, et al.
Nov. 29, 1756 2p. Request Item

Concerning Indians

318. Denny, William .
to Timothy Horsfield
Dec. 2, 1756 1p. Request Item

Acknowledging important intelligence, suggesting measures and providing arms

345. Denny, William .
to Timothy Horsfield
Dec. 2, 1756 1p. Request Item

Acknowledging important intelligence, suggesting measures and providing arms (copy of no. 318)

343. Denny, William .
to August Gottlieb Spangenberg
Dec. 2, 1756 1p. Request Item

Recommending him to receive Indians and Commissioners will pay necessary charges

320. Denny, William .
to Timothy Horsfield
Dec. 9, 1756 1p. Request Item

Advising of the grant of fifty stand of arms

525. Discription of the Nain and Wechquetane Indians from the wild Indians [sic]
ca.1756 1p. Request Item
322. Indian intelligence
1756 5p. Request Item
349. Denny, William .
Passport for Joseph Peepy and Lewis Montour (friendly Indians)
Jan. 9, 1757 1p. Request Item
351. Horsfield, Timothy, 1708-1773.
to Benjamin Franklin, Fox, et al.
Jan. 21, 1757 1p. Request Item

Arrival of Joseph Peepy and Lewis Montour; conduct of piety

353.. Horsfield, Timothy, 1708-1773.
to William Denny
Jan. 21, 1757 2p. Request Item

Re: Indians

355.. Parsons, William, 1701-1757.
to Timothy Horsfield
Feb. 20, 1757 1p. Request Item

Probable arrival of Teedyuscung to the Governor

357. Franklin, Benjamin, 1706-1790.
to William Parsons
Feb. 22, 1757 1p. Request Item

His account has not been settled by Commissioners; has been ordered to England; final settlement of disputes

359. Parsons, William, 1701-1757.
to Richard Peters
Feb. 23, 1757 1p. Request Item

Re: Indians

361. Snider, Jacob.
to William Parsons
March 3, 1757 1p. Request Item

Re: conduct of Hieronymus Faxter and his discharge

363. Chapman, John.
to Timothy Horsfield
March 16, 1757 1p. Request Item

Re: Indians

365. Denny, William .
Answer to Indians at Bethlehem
March 31, 1757 1p. Request Item
369. Denny, William .
to Timothy Horsfield
March 31, 1757 1p. Request Item

Enclosing preceding and alluding to military watch

371. Galbreath, James.
Passport for Nathaniel (friendly Indian)
April 4, 1757 1p. Request Item
330. Denny, William .
to Timothy Horsfield
April 5, 1757 1p. Request Item

Desiring guns and kettles to be repaired at expense of Commissioners

373. Denny, William .
to unidentified
April 26, 1757 1p. Request Item

Re: Indians going to Bethlehem

332. Denny, William .
to Timothy Horsfield
April 26, 1757 1p. Request Item

Desiring Indians to stay at Bethlehem till King comes

375. Parsons, William, 1701-1757.
to Timothy Horsfield
April 28, 1757 2p. Request Item

Re: Indian affairs

377. Jonathan, a Mohawk Sachem.
Message to the Delaware (Christian) Indians to attend at the Treaty at Lancaster
May 1, 1757 2p. Request Item
379. Record of council with Delaware (Christian) Indians
May 1, 1757 2p. Request Item
381. Franklin, Benjamin, 1706-1790.
to William Parsons
May 3, 1757 1p. Request Item

Re: Nugent

383. Croghan, George, d.1782.
to Timothy Horsfield
May 24, 1757 1p. Request Item

Desiring to expedite two friendly Indians to Teedyuscung

385. Trent, Capt..
to Timothy Horsfield
May 25, 1757 1p. Request Item

Re: preceding

387. Read, James, 1718-1793.
to Timothy Horsfield
May 26, 1757 1p. Request Item
391. Denny, William .
to Timothy Horsfield
June 6, 1757 1p. Request Item

Re: ammunition

393. Parsons, William, 1701-1757.
to Timothy Horsfield
June 13, 1757 1p. Request Item

Re: raising men

395. Parsons, William, 1701-1757.
to Timothy Horsfield
June 19, 1757 1p. Request Item
397. Denny, William .
to Timothy Horsfield
July 7, 1757 1p. Request Item

Acknowledging receipt of letters of Teedyuscung

399. Peters, Richard, 1743-1828.
to Timothy Horsfield
July 9, 1757 1p. Request Item

Re: an Indian being shot through the thigh by a white boy, and desiring his apprehension

401. Denny, William .
to Timothy Horsfield
Sept. 5, 1757 1p. Request Item

Re: Indians

405. Horsfield, Timothy, 1708-1773.
to William Denny
Oct. 6, 1757 1p. Request Item

Re Teedyuscung and his going to Philadelphia

407. Weiser, Conrad, 1696-1760.
to William Parsons
Oct. 23, 1757 1p. Request Item

Enclosing money

411. Horsfield, Timothy, 1708-1773.
to William Denny
Nov. 2, 1757 1p. Request Item

Re: Teedyuscung

413. Weiser, Conrad, 1696-1760.
to Timothy Horsfield
Jan. 16, 1758 1p. Request Item

Resigning commission as Lt.-Col.; attack of palsy

417. Denny, William .
to Timothy Horsfield
Feb. 3, 1758 1p. Request Item

Enclosing letters for Captains and recommending Mr. Swaine

421. Strettell, Robert.
to Timothy Horsfield
April 14, 1758 1p. Request Item

Re: Teedyuscung

425. Peters, Richard, 1743-1828.
to Timothy Horsfield
Jan. 17, 1761 1p. Request Item

Re: discharge of garrison at Fort Allen

427. Account of Ammunition, Stores etc. in Fort Allen
Jan. 21, 1761 2p. Request Item

Jan. 17

431. Horsfield, Timothy, 1708-1773.
to James Hamilton
July 22, 1761 1p. Request Item

Re: Indians

433. Hamilton, James, 1710-1783.
to Timothy Horsfield
Aug. 29, 1761 2p. Request Item

Desiring information on Indian affairs

437. Brodhead, Charles.
Affidavit respecting Indians
Sept. 2, 1761 3p. Request Item
441. Horsfield, Timothy, 1708-1773.
to James Hamilton in reply to Aug. 29
Sept. 3, 1761 4p. Request Item
445. Horsfield, Timothy, 1708-1773.
to James Hamilton
Sept. 5, 1761 2p. Request Item

With additional information

447. Peters, Richard, 1743-1828.
to Timothy Horsfield
March 11, 1762 1p. Request Item

Enclosing letters for Teedyuscung

449. Peters, Richard, 1743-1828.
to Timothy Horsfield
May 7, 1762 1p. Request Item
451. Hamilton, James, 1710-1783.
to Timothy Horsfield
June 23, 1763 1p. Request Item

Requesting, intelligence on Indian affairs

455. Horsfield, Timothy, 1708-1773.
to James Hamilton
June 27, 1762 2p. Request Item

In reply to preceding

456. Hamilton, James, 1710-1783.
to Timothy Horsfield
July 11, 1763 2p. Request Item

Authorizing Horsfield to raise two Companies of Foot

458. Hamilton, James, 1710-1783.
to Timothy Horsfield
July 11, 1763 2p. Request Item

Recruiting instructions

460. Hamilton, James, 1710-1783.
Commission for Timothy Horsfield as Commander of the Companies of Foot from Northampton County
July 11, 1763 1p. Request Item
463. Hamilton, James, 1710-1783.
to Timothy Horsfield
July 26, 1763 1p. Request Item

Reposing confidence in his nomination of officers

467. Hamilton, James, 1710-1783.
to Timothy Horsfield
July 27, 1763 1p. Request Item

Re: additional force at Easton

471. Hamilton, James, 1710-1783.
to Timothy Horsfield
Aug. 13, 1763 1p. Request Item

Acknowledging communications; enclosing £100 and expressing great satisfaction at his proceedings

475. Upper Smithfield Township (Pa.). Inhabitants..
Petition to James Hamilton
Aug. 17, 1763 2p. Request Item

Requesting men to range and scour the woods

479. Hamilton, James, 1710-1783.
to Timothy Horsfield
Aug. 19, 1763 1p. Request Item

Re: an associated independent company at Mt. Bethel

483. Hamilton, James, 1710-1783.
to Timothy Horsfield
Sept. 1, 1763 1p. Request Item

Acknowledging satisfaction at his Journal of proceedings

487. Hamilton, James, 1710-1783.
to Timothy Horsfield
Sept. 20, 1763 1p. Request Item

Indian affairs

491. Hamilton, James, 1710-1783.
to Timothy Horsfield
Oct. 10, 1763 1p. Request Item

Indian affairs

495. Shippen, Joseph.
to Timothy Horsfield
Oct. 13, 1763 1p. Request Item

Enclosing letters for express delivery

499. Hamilton, James, 1710-1783.
to Timothy Horsfield
Oct. 13, 1763 1p. Request Item

Desiring his attendance at Pennsylvania with testimony in favor of Moravian Indians

503. Grube, Bernard Adam.
to Timothy Horsfield
Oct. 13, 1763 2p. Request Item

Re: Indians

506. Penn, John, 1729-1795.
to Timothy Horsfield
Nov. 14, 1763 1p. Request Item

Appointing Major Clayton to succeed to command of Companies

509. Penn, Richard.
to Timothy Horsfield et al.
Nov. 23, 1771 1p. Request Item

Desiring inquiry to be made respecting Elizabeth Kortsey

513. Weiser, Conrad, 1696-1760.
to Timothy Horsfield
n.d. 1p. Request Item

Enclosing letters for delivery to Officers in command of forts

517. Address to Kolapeeha and the other Indians
n.d. 2p. Request Item
519. Busse, Christian.
n.d. 1p. Request Item

Account of scalping of the Felix Wins and capture of his wife and children

527. Indians at Bethlehem and Wampaqueca (Wyoming)..
Petition to the Governor of Pennsylvania
n.d. 2p. Request Item
535. Sermon concerning friendly and enemy Indians
n.d. 8p. Request Item