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Abstract

A pioneer biochemist, Carl Neuberg (1877-1956) spent over thirty years of his productive career as a professor at the University of Berlin (1903-1937) and as Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institutes of Biochemistry and Experimental Therapy. His varied research interests resulted in important contributions to the understanding of fermentation processes, solubility and transport phenomena in cells, the chemistry of carbohydrates, sugars, enzymes, and amino acids, and photochemistry. Neuberg was forced out of his position after the Nazi rise to power, and taking refuge in the United States. For the last several years of his life, he worked at New York University.

The Neuberg collection consists of correspondence, lab notebooks, documents, photographs, and reprints, nearly all dating from after Neuberg's departure from Germany in 1940. The correspondence documents Neuberg's late-career work and the contacts he developed with American chemical manufacturers and industries involved in fermentation, as well as the burgeoning post-war relationship between scientific research and the federal dollar. Files for the American Cancer Society, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, and the U.S. Public Health Service in particular contain useful information for study of the politics and mechanics of government grants.

Background note

To say that Carl Neuberg (1877-1956) was a pioneer in biochemistry is to understate the case: he coined the term. Born in Hanover, Germany, on July 29, 1877, to the Jewish merchant, Julius Sandel Neuberg and his wife Alma (Niemann), Neuberg studied chemistry under Virchow at the University of Berlin, receiving his Dr. Phil. in 1900. Appointed to the Pathological Institute of the University, Neuberg rose through the academic ranks from Privatdozent in 1903 to Titularprofessor (1906), before becoming head of the Tierphysiologisches Institut at the University from 1909-1913 and simultaneously full professor at the Landwirtschaftliche Hochschule in Berlin.

The major achievements of Neuberg's early career included the elucidation of solubility and transport phenomena in cells, the chemistry of carbohydrates and sugars, photochemistry, and the discovery of the different forms of fermentation. As early as 1912, he also devoted attention to the chemistry of amino acids and enzymes, and in 1916, he discovered hydrotropy, which he considered one of his most important discoveries. Neuberg contributed materially to the German war effort in 1914-1918 by developing the process of manufacturing glycerol and substitutes through the fermentation of sugar.

Neuberg's influence on the emergence of the field of biochemistry was profound. He helped establish the Biochemische Zeitschrift in 1906 and edited 278 volumes over the next thirty years. The nomenclature in the field bears similar traces of Neuberg's ingenuity, including the terms phosphorylation, dismutation, desmolysis, and co-enzyme.

Neuberg's increasing status during the 1910s and 1920s brought him a steady increase in administrative power. In 1913, he was recognized with an appointment as Second Director at the prestigious new Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Experimental Therapy, headed by August von Wasserman, and his promotion to Professor (1916) and full Professor (1919) at the University of Berlin followed in short order. Neuberg accrued a range of other responsibilities at the same time as he became Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biochemistry in 1920, of the Institute for Experimental Therapy upon Wasserman's death in 1923, and adding the directorship of the Forschungsstelle des Deutschen Rechies für Chemie des Tabaks in 1928.

With the rise to power of the Nazis, Neuberg initially believed his services during the First World War would afford him some protection. In 1937, however, he was driven out of his posts by the Nazis. Only two days before the war broke out, a friend in military circles issued Neuberg a pass to leave, with the intention of assuming a position offered to him at the University of Jerusalem. Landing in Amsterdem, he worked to raise money for his passage, and with the assistance of his old colleague Claude Fromageot, reached Palestine. Neuberg resumed his monumental wartime peregrinations in 1941, and a dramatic passage through Iraq, Iran, India, and New Guinea, he arrived at New York University in February 1941,with little more than a pair of valises to his name.

Already nearing the standard age of retirement, Neuberg lamented that he had arrived "ten years too late to find a proper position" in the United States, and certainly he fared poorly relative other displaced scholars, such as Max Bergmann and Erwin Chargaff. The miniscule laboratory he occupied at the university from 1941-1950 and his inadequate pay were inadequate to support a substantial research program. "Lieber Herr College Thomas," he wrote to an old colleague in Germany, "Sie sehen in Amerika ist fuer unsereinen nicht das Paradies.... Jetzt bin ich eine alter immigrierter Hund, der nur mit einem Handkoefferchen angekommen ist, Emigrant bin ich eigentlich nicht, sondern nur einfach herausgeworfen." To his old colleague Maria Kobel he complained "Der Titel Research-Professor ist eine Verbraemung des Nichts."

Neuberg nevertheless succeeded in securing important contacts with the pharmaceutical and fermentation industries over the next decade, and like many of his peers, his late career maps out the increasing role played by the federal government and industry in the post-war years. In 1950, he spent a year as visiting lecturer at the Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute, and he traveled to Germany in 1952 to deliver lectures on biochemistry, receiving honorary degrees and awards along the way.

Over the course of his career, Neuberg contributed to over 900 publications, including work on the chemistry of sugars, fermentation, enzymes, and amino acids. He considered his most important work to lie in the discovery of carboxylase, the different forms of fermentation, the artificial production of glycerol, and the discovery of pyro-, meta- and polyphosphatases. His work on solubility and transport phenomena had broad applicability in the life sciences, including to agriculture, nutrition, cytology, and oncology.

Neuberg was the recipient of honorary degrees from the universities of Breslau, Danzig, Palermo, Edinburgh, and Berlin, and he was recipient of Emil Fischer Scheele, Berzelius, Delbrück, Leblanc, and Pasteur medals. He died at home in New York in 1956.

Scope and content

The disruptions to the life and career of the biochemist, Carl Neuberg, exacted the toll on his papers. The 13.5 linear feet of correspondence, research notes, and photographs that survives is heavily skewed toward the last fifteen years of a long and distinguished career, representing the period between 1942 and 1956 when he was employed at New York University and in retirement. Despite the relative paucity of material for earlier periods of Neuberg's life, the collection offers interesting insights into the experiences and struggles of a Jewish German émigreé scientist to establish himself in American academia.

With the exception of correspondence with his friend Kurt Jacobson in Portugal (5 folders, 1929-1956), a few German industries (4 folders, ca. 1916-1945), the Kaiser Wilhelm Society and Institutes (5 folders, ca. 1913-1952), and the German War Department (2 folders, 1916) the collection has little to offer for Neuberg's pre-war years. Some of post-war correspondence, however, reveals some of the trauma he experienced, and some of his hardships leading up. The letters between Neuberg and Karl Thomas ("Briefe nach 1945") and Kurt Jacobson provide details on Neuberg's escape from Berlin and flight through Palestine before arriving in New York. The letters with Thomas, in particular, give a spare, but moving account of the hardships both chemists faced during and after the war, as Thomas adjusted to life in the new Germany and Neuberg to life in America. Neuberg's impression of American science was unflattering, reflecting his frustrations:

Neuberg's continuing research in cell chemistry, sustained by small grants from public and private sources, eventually generated some support from the United States government. The files on government-sponsored research contain a wealth of information -- proposals, contracts, progress reports, and letters -- highlighting the growing link between the life sciences, government, and the military during the late 1940s and early 1950. Of particular interest in this regard are the materials relating to: the American Cancer Society (5 folders, 1949-1956); the Nutrition Foundation (1943-1945); the Rockefeller Foundation (1941); U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (3 folders, 1949-1953; grant applications and approval of projects on solubility and metabolism of soil metals); U.S. Department of Agriculture (2 folders, 1944-1950); Office of Naval Research (4 folders, 1950-1955, proposals, reports, renewals, and contracts on cell transport projects); and the U.S. Public Health Service (8 folders, 1943-1955, on grants for phosphorous compounds and solubility in cells).

Throughout his life in the United States, Neuberg remained attached to European science and to international causes in science. In addition to his contacts made through the American Society of European Chemists (1 folder, 1948-1954), which he helped found and which changed its name to the Carl Neuberg Society for International Relations (all items in the collection are filed under the new name), Neuberg maintained fairly extensive contact with scientists from other countries, including Japan. His correspondence with prominent German chemists (in German) is informative on postwar German science, issues surrounding the intellectual migration, and Neuberg's misfortunes in particular.

Series I. Correspondence1912-19568.5 linear feet
Series II. Works by Neuberg1898-19561 linear feet
Series III. Notebooks1919-19554 linear feet

Arrangement

Arrangement is for the Reader Copies.

Collection information

Provenance

Gift of Carl Neuberg's daughter, Irene Forrest, June 1980.

Preferred citation

Cite as: Carl Neuberg Papers, American Philosophical Society.

Separated material

Neuberg's reprints and a collection of books have been transferred to the Department of Printed Materials.

Physiology, Biochemistry, and Biophysics Note

Carl Neuberg was one of Germany's most important biochemists, from intellectual, institutional, and commercial standpoints. His investigations were reflected in over 900 publications covering sugar chemistry, fermentation processes, enzyme chemistry, amino acid studies, and phenomena of biochemical reduction and phosphorylation in living cells. He was the founder and editor of the Biochemische Zeitschrift (1906), and from the early 1920s until 1937 was director of the Kaiser-Wilhelm Institute for Experimental Therapy and of the Kaiser-Wilhelm Institute for Biochemistry.

After being ousted by the Hitler regime, Neuberg's odyssey through Holland, Palestine, Iraq, Iran, India, and New Guinea finally brought him to New York in 1940 at the age of sixty-three. With a few exceptions, the Neuberg Papers (correspondence, laboratory notebooks, documents, photographs, and reprints) date from his arrival in America.

According to Neuberg, he had arrived "ten years too late to find a proper position." Relative to other prominent emigre biochemists (Bergmann, Chargaff, Schoenheimer, etc.), Neuberg did not fare well in his new country. The tiny laboratory at New York University and the facilities he later obtained at Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute were inadequate for a substantial research program. He continued to investigate problems of relevance to commercial chemical processes, especially in the pharmaceutical and fermentation industries.

Neuberg also continued his fundamental research in cell chemistry, with moderate support from private and public sources. His studies on solubility and transport phenomena in cells and tissues were relevant to several fields in the life sciences, such as agriculture, nutrition, cytology, and oncology, leading to projects supported by the United States government. The files on government-sponsored research contain a wealth of information -- proposals, contracts, progress reports, and letters -- highlighting the growing linkages between the life sciences, government, and the military during the postwar era.

Throughout his life in the United States, Neuberg remained attached to European science and to international causes in science. Aside from founding the American Society of European Chemists, he maintained correspondence with scientists from other countries, including Japan. Neuberg's correspondence with prominent German chemists (in German) is very informative on postwar German science, issues surrounding the intellectual migration, and Neuberg's misfortune in particular.

AuthorFormatDateLanguage
Abderhalden, Emil, 1877-1950 ( On differences between American and German science, and on Max Bergmann.) Correspondence (36 items)1945-1949German
Adams, Roger, 1889-1971 ( Adams' impressions of postwar Germany.) Correspondence (4 items)1946-1948English
American Cancer Society ( Indicative of Neuberg's research in cell chemistry.) Correspondence (5 folders)1949-1956English
Anheuser-Busch, Inc. ( Problems of relevance to commercial chemical processes in the fermentation industry.) Correspondence (8 items)1942-1956English
Anschutz, Ludwig, b. 1889 ( Potentially informative correspondence on postwar German science and issues surrounding the intellectual migration.) Correspondence (34 items)1947-1955German
Aron, Hans C. S. ( Potentially informative correspondence on postwar German science and issues surrounding the intellectual migration.) Correspondence (2 folders)1942-1955German
Butenandt, Adolph Friedrich Johann, 1903-1995 ( Documents the strong bond between the two important biochemists, Butenandt and Neuberg. There are references to the prewar era, but much of the correspondence addresses events after the war: Butenandt's tenure at the Kaiser-Wilhelm Institute, the state of German science, and Neuberg's plight. These letters are an important source on Butenandt, German science, and the intellectual migration.) Correspondence (2 folders)1947-1956German
Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Company ( Problems of relevance to commercial chemical processes.) Correspondence (14 items)1942-1953English
Deuticke, Hans Joachim ( Potentially informative correspondence on postwar German science and issues surrounding the intellectual migration.) Correspondence (26 items)1951-1956German
Euler, Hans von, 1873-1964 ( Potentially informative correspondence on postwar German science and issues surrounding the intellectual migration.) Correspondence (12 items)1947-1956German
Federal Yeast Corporation ( Problems of relevance to commercial chemical processes in the fermentation industry.) Correspondence (5 items)1943-1956English
Fromageot, Claude, 1899-1958 ( Potentially informative correspondence on postwar German science and issues surrounding the intellectual migration.) Correspondence (35 items)1940-1953German
Gaffron, H. (Hans) ( On research interests, and technical and social issues.) Correspondence (14 items)1943-1956German
Hahn, Otto, 1879-1968 ( On issues related to Neuberg's directorship of the Kaiser-Wilhelm Institute.) Correspondence (18 items)1947-1956German
Hoffmann-La Roche ( Problems of relevance to commercial chemical processes in the pharmaceutical industry.) Correspondence (24 items)1944-1954German
Jacobsohn, Kurt Paul, 1904-1991 ( Scientific, professional, and personal communications. Correspondence between mentor and student. Jacobsohn was a former Ph.D. student of Neuberg's at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute (1926-1929). Some of the letters provide details on Neuberg's escape from Berlin and flight through Palestine before arriving in New York.) Correspondence (5 folders)1929-1956German
Kaiser-Wilhelm Gesellschaft zur Forderung der WisenschaftenCorrespondence (25 items)1925-1949German
Kaiser-Wilhelm Institut fur Biochemie ( Neuberg was the Director of the Kaiser-Wilhelm Institut fur Biochemie from 1920 to 1937.) Correspondence (1 item)1927German
Kaiser-Wilhelm Institut fur Experimentelle TherapieCorrespondence (1 item)1913German
Kaiser-Wilhelm Institut fur Physikalische Chemie und ElektrochemieCorrespondence (1 item)1916German
Kaiser-Wilhelm Institut fur ZellphysiologieCorrespondence (1 item)1952German
Kriegsministerium-Allgemeines Kriegs-Department ( Correspondence with the German War Department. Neuberg contributed materially to the German war effort in 1914-1918 by developing the process of manufacturing glycerol and substitutes through the fermentation of sugar.) Correspondence (5 items)1917-1918German
Lederle Laboratories ( Problems of relevance to commercial chemical processes in the pharmaceutical industry.) Correspondence (7 items)1943-1949English
Mazia, Daniel, 1912-1996 ( On Neuberg's difficult times in America.) Correspondence (8 items)1955-1956English
Meyerhof, Otto, 1884-1951 ( Potentially informative correspondence on postwar German science and issues surrounding the intellectual migration.) Correspondence (4 items)1947-1949German
Michaelis, Leonor, 1875-1949 ( Potentially informative correspondence on postwar German science and issues surrounding the intellectual migration.) Correspondence (4 items)1947-1950German
Monsanto Chemical Company ( Problems of relevance to commercial chemical processes.) Correspondence (24 items)1942-1948English
Nachmansohn, David, 1899-1983 ( Potentially informative correspondence on postwar German science and issues surrounding the intellectual migration.) Correspondence (7 items)1947-1955German
National Grain Yeast Corporation ( Problems of relevance to commercial chemical processes in the fermentation industry.) Correspondence (4 items)1942-1949English
National Sugar Refining Company ( Problems of relevance to commercial chemical processes.) Correspondence (3 items)1944-1952English
Carl Neuberg Society for International Scientific Relations ( Materials regarding a society, formerly known as the American Society of European Chemists and Pharmacists, which Neuberg founded.) Correspondence (3 folders)1947-1980German
Nord, Friedrich Franz, 1889-1973 ( Potentially informative correspondence on postwar German science and issues surrounding the intellectual migration.) Correspondence (66 items)1942-1956German
Nutrition Foundation ( Indicative of Neuberg's research in cell chemistry.) Correspondence (14 items)1943-1949English
Ochoa, Severo, 1905-1993 ( On important aspects of Ochoa's career.) Correspondence (13 items)1947-1955English
Rockefeller Foundation ( Grant application and rejection.) Correspondence (2 items)1941English
Rohm and Haas Company ( Problems of relevance to commercial chemical processes.) Correspondence (10 items)1942-1948English
E. R. Squibb and Sons ( Problems of relevance to commercial chemical processes in the pharmaceutical industry.) Correspondence (3 items)1948-1953English
Standard Oil Company ( Problems of relevance to commercial chemical processes.) Correspondence (2 items)1946-1948English
Stern, Kurt Guenter ( On interesting professional issues.) Correspondence (28 items)1943-1956German
U.S. Atomic Energy Commission ( Grant applications and approval of projects on solubility and metabolism of soil metals.) Correspondence (4 folders)1949-1953English
U.S. Department of Agriculture ( Indicative of Neuberg's research in cell chemistry.) Correspondence (2 folders)1944-1950English
U.S. Department of the Navy. Office of Naval Research ( Proposals, reports, renewals, and contracts on cell transport projects.) Correspondence (4 folders)1950-1955English
U.S. Public Health Service ( On grants for phosphorous compounds and solubility in cells.) Correspondence (8 folders)1943-1955English
Van Slyke, Donald D. (Donald Dexter), 1883-1971Correspondence (1 item)1951English
Warburg, Otto Heinrich, 1883-1970 ( Potentially informative correspondence on postwar German science and issues surrounding the intellectual migration.) Correspondence (50 items)1948-1956German
Wieland, H. (Heinrich), b. 1877 ( In the 1930s Wieland openly opposed the Nazi regime and supported his Jewish colleagues. One of them was Carl Neuberg, who in 1937 was fired from his post as director of the Kaiser-Wilhelm Institute for Biochemistry. Contains long letters about German and American colleagues, German and American chemistry, and exchanges about the effects of the war.) Correspondence (28 items)1946-1955German

Additional Biographical Notes:

Adolph F. J. Butenandt made most of his seminal discoveries in reproductive biochemistry in the 1930s, while serving as director of the organic chemical laboratories at the University of Tubingen. During that decade he isolated the female sex hormone estrone, the male hormone androsterone, and the female hormone progesterone. Applying sensitive microanalyses, Butenandt deduced the chemical formula of androsterone and predicted the structure of a related compound that was synthesized shortly after. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1939, but was forced to refuse it by the Hitler regime, he did not actually receive it until 1949.

In 1936 Butenandt was appointed director of the Kaiser-Wilhelm Institute for Biochemistry in Berlin, replacing his friend and colleague Carl Neuberg, who had been ousted by the Nazis. Butenandt helped him set up a short-lived underground laboratory in a different part of Berlin, and remained a friend and loyal supporter until Neuberg's death in 1956.

Heinrich O. Wieland spent his student and research career at the University of Munich. His diverse researches in organic chemistry drew students from many countries; several Americans obtained advanced training in his laboratory. His most important investigations (1910s) centered on elucidating the molecular structures of bile acids, showing them to be steroid in nature. As the appreciation for the importance of steroids in reproductive physiology and in nutrition increased during the 1920s, the contributions of Wieland assumed far greater significance. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1927.

Indexing Terms

Corporate Name(s)

  • American Cancer Society.
  • Carl Neuberg Society for International Scientific Relations
  • Kaiser Wilhelm Institut fur Biochemie
  • New York University
  • U.S. Atomic Energy Commission.
  • United States. Public Health Service.

Genre(s)

  • Laboratory notes
  • Photographs

Geographic Name(s)

  • Germany--History--1945-1955

Personal Name(s)

  • Anschütz, Ludwig
  • Antoniani, Claudio, 1899-
  • Aron, Hans, 1881-
  • Auhagen, Ernst
  • Bloch-Frankenthal, Leah
  • Butenandt, Adolf, 1903-
  • Collatz, Herbert, 1902-
  • Deuticke, Hans
  • Durig, Arnold, 1872-
  • Euler, Hans von, 1873-1964
  • Feigl, Fritz, 1891-
  • Fodor, Andor, 1884-
  • Fromageot, Claude, 1899-
  • Gaffron, Hans, 1902-
  • Hahn, Otto, 1879-1968
  • Hofmann, Eduard, 1897-
  • Kluyver, A. J., (Albert Jan), 1888-1956
  • Maengwyn-Davies, Gertrude, 1910-
  • May, Albert von
  • Nachmansohn, David, 1899-
  • Neuberg, Carl, b. 1877
  • Nord, Friedrich Franz, 1889-1973
  • Ochoa, Severo, 1905-
  • Rose, William C.
  • Schoenebeck, Otto von
  • Sobatka, Harry H.
  • Telschow, Ernst, 1889-
  • Thomas, Karl, 1883-
  • Virtanen, A. I., (Artturi Ilmari), 1895-1973
  • Warburg, Otto Heinrich, 1883-1970
  • Wieland, H. , (Heinrich), b. 1877
  • Windaus, Adolf, 1876-1960
  • Windisch, Fritz, 1898-
  • Wolfrom, Melville Lawrence, 1900-1960

Subject(s)

  • Biochemistry.
  • Chemical industry -- United States.
  • Federal aid to research--United States
  • Fermentation
  • Jewish scientists
  • Political refugees
  • Sugars
  • World War, 1939-1945
Collection overview
1912-1956 Box 1-17

Correspondence, with some notes and miscellaneous material, received by Carl Neuberg, primarily after his emigration to the United States. Among the main correspondents are E. Abderhalden (1945-1949), on differences between American and German science and on Max Bergmann; R. Adams (1946-1948), on Adams's impressions of postwar Germany; L. Anschütz (1948-1955); H.C.S. Aron (2 files, 1942-1955); Adolf Butenandt (1947-1956); H. J. Deuticke (1951-1956); Hans von Euler (1947-1956); Claude Fromageot (1940-1953); Hans Gaffron (1943-1956) on research interests and technical and social issues; Otto Hahn (1947-1956) on issues related to Neuberg's directorship of the Kaiser-Wilhelm Institute; Kurt Jacobson (5 folders, 1924-1956), scientific, professional, and personal communications; D. Mazia (1955-1956) on Neuberg's difficult times in America; Otto Meyerhoff (1947-1949); L. Michaelis (1947-1949); D. Nachmanson (1947-1945); Friedrich Franz Nord (1942-1956); Severo Ochoa (1947-1955) on important aspects of Ochoa's career; K. G. Stern (1943-1956) on interesting professional issues; Otto Warburg (1948-1956); and H. Wieland (1946-1955), on German and American chemistry and common colleagues.

1898-1956 Box 18-19
1919-1955 Box 20-27

Notebooks relating to Neuberg's research and reading in biochemistry, dating almost exclusively from after his move to New York University in 1946.



Detailed Inventory
Series I. Correspondence
1912-1956 Box 1-17

Correspondence, with some notes and miscellaneous material, received by Carl Neuberg, primarily after his emigration to the United States. Among the main correspondents are E. Abderhalden (1945-1949), on differences between American and German science and on Max Bergmann; R. Adams (1946-1948), on Adams's impressions of postwar Germany; L. Anschütz (1948-1955); H.C.S. Aron (2 files, 1942-1955); Adolf Butenandt (1947-1956); H. J. Deuticke (1951-1956); Hans von Euler (1947-1956); Claude Fromageot (1940-1953); Hans Gaffron (1943-1956) on research interests and technical and social issues; Otto Hahn (1947-1956) on issues related to Neuberg's directorship of the Kaiser-Wilhelm Institute; Kurt Jacobson (5 folders, 1924-1956), scientific, professional, and personal communications; D. Mazia (1955-1956) on Neuberg's difficult times in America; Otto Meyerhoff (1947-1949); L. Michaelis (1947-1949); D. Nachmanson (1947-1945); Friedrich Franz Nord (1942-1956); Severo Ochoa (1947-1955) on important aspects of Ochoa's career; K. G. Stern (1943-1956) on interesting professional issues; Otto Warburg (1948-1956); and H. Wieland (1946-1955), on German and American chemistry and common colleagues.

Abbott Laboratories
1943-1944 Box 1
Abderhalden, Emil
1945-49 Box 1
Abderhalden, Rudolf
1948 Box 1
Academic Press, Inc.
1942-1956 2.0 folders Box 1
Ackermann, D.
1952-1956 Box 1
Adams, Roger
1946-1948 Box 1
Addinal, C.R
1946 Box 1
Adenauer, Konrad
1954 Box 1
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry
1945-1946 Box 1
Advances in Enzymology
1953-1955 Box 1
Agricultural Research Station-Rehovot
1941 Box 1
Agrikulturchemisches Institut Weihenstephen
1952-1955 Box 1
Akademie der Wissenschaften-Gottingen
1947-1951 Box 1
Akamatsu, S.
1951-1956 Box 1
Albaum, Harry G.
1951 Box 1
Alberty, ___
1953 Box 1
Alexander, Jerome
1941-1942 Box 1
Alrose Chemical Company
1948 Box 1
American Almond Products Company
1944 Box 1
American Association for the Advancement of Science
1944-1951 Box 1
American Brewer
1942-1952 Box 1
American Cancer Society
1949-1956 5.0 folders Box 1
American Chemical Society
1944-1956 Box 1
American Christian Palestine Committee
1952 Box 1
American Cyanamid & Chemical Corporation
1945-1953 Box 1
American Friends of the Hebrew University
1944 Box 1
American Institute of Biological Sciences
1952 Box 1

Handbook of Biological Data

American Jewish Literary Foundation
1955 Box 1
American League for a Free Palestine, Inc.
1944 Box 1
American Lecithin Company
1942-1944 Box 1
American Museum of Natural History
1955-1956 Box 1
American Philosophical Society
1950 Box 1
American Society of Biological Chemists
1945-1954 Box 1
American Society of European Chemists and Pharmacists
1948-1954 Box 1

See: Carl Neuberg Society for International Relations

Ammon, R.
1953-1956 Box 1
Analytica Chimica Acta
1952-1953 Box 1
Andreadis, Thales
1947 Box 1
Anheuser-Busch, Inc.
1942-1956 Box 1
Annual Review of Biochemistry
1944-1955 2.0 folders Box 1
Anschütz, Anni
1949 Box 2
Anschütz, Ludwig
1947-1955 Box 2
Antoniani, Claudio
1947-1955 Box 2
Antonoff, George
1942 Box 2
Araki, Choji
1954 Box 2
Arams, Alice
1942 Box 2
Arapahoe Chemicals, Inc.
1947-1952 Box 2
Archer-Daniels-Midland Company
1943 Box 2
Archives of Biochemistry
1942-1956 3.0 folders Box 2
Armed Forces Medical Library
1954 Box 2
Armour Laboratories
1947 Box 2
Arndt, Franz
1954 Box 2
Aron, Hans C.S.
1942-55 2.0 folders Box 2
Ascoli, Alberto
1947 Box 2
Ascorbic Acid
1922-1940 3.0 folders Box 2
Atlas Powder Company
1944-49 Box 2
Aub, J.A.
1944 Box 2
Aubel, E.
1949 Box 2
Aufbau
1952-1956 Box 2
Augstein, Ilse
1947 Box 2
Auhagen, Ernst
1948-1956 Box 2
Avoset Company
1948 Box 2
Axelrod, Bernard
1947 Box 2
Bacher de Eis, Alfred A.
1943-1956 Box 2
Baeck, Leo
1953 Box 2
Baecker, Benno
1943 Box 2
Baer, Erich
1954 Box 2
Baker, J.T. Chemical Company
1942-1946 Box 2
Ballantine, P. & Sons
1942 Box 2
Bamann, E.
1954 Box 2
Barken, G.
1943-1944 Box 2
Barnicoat, C.R.
1955 Box 2
Baron, ___
Undated Box 2
Barrenscheen, H.K.
1952 Box 2
Baudisch, Oskar
1950 Box 2
Bauer, Julius
1952 Box 2
Farbenfabriken Bayer
1952-1954 Box 2
Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften
1951-1952 Box 2
Bayerische Vereinsbank
1953 Box 2
Bayerisches Staatsministerium für Unterricht und Kultus
1952 Box 2
Bazzi, Umberto
1949 Box 2
Becker, Elmer L.
1952 Box 2
Behrendt, Ernst
1953 Box 2
Beitcher, Kurt
1955 Box 2
Beitzke, H.
1951-1953 Box 2
Beitzke, Irma
1951-1953 Box 2
Bell, J.
1947-1952 Box 3
Bell, Russell
1947 Box 3
Bender, C.E.
1943 Box 3
Benesch, Reinhold and Ruth
1952-1956 Box 3
Benson, Arthur J.
1946 Box 3
Benton, Paul Bermann
1942-1956 Box 3
Berenblum, I.
1951 Box 3
Berg, George G.
1955 Box 3
Berger, C.A.
1951 Box 3
Bergius, Friedrich
1948 Box 3
Bergmann, ___
1916 Box 3
Bergmann, Ernst
1942-1955 Box 3
Bergmann, Felix
1947 Box 3
Bergmann, Gustav von
1951-1952 Box 3
Berl, E.
1943 Box 3
Berlak, H.L.
1952 Box 3
Berlak, Marianne
1946 Box 3
Berlak, Millie
1941-1955 Box 3
Berliner, Alfred
1947 Box 3
Bermann, Viktor
1941-1955 Box 3
Bernard, S.R.
1956 Box 3
Bernhauer, K.
1951 Box 3
Bersin, Th.
1948-1955 Box 3
Bersworth Chemical Company
1948 Box 3
Berthold, Herman
1950 Box 3
Best Yeast, Limited
1944 Box 3
Big, E.J.
1948 Box 3
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
1952-1955 Box 3
Birsten, Vera
1947 Box 3
Blakiston, Company, Inc.
1954 Box 3
Blank, Fritz
1947 Box 3
Bloch-Frankenthal, Leah
1945-1956 Box 3
Block, R.J.
1954 Box 3
Boaz, Friedrich
1953 Box 3
Bodecker, Charles F.
1956 Box 3
Boehm, Ernest
1951 Box 3
Bolcato, Virgilio
1953-1956 Box 3
Bonhoeffer, K.F.
1953 Box 3
Bonner, James
1956 Box 3
Boscott, R.J.
1952 Box 3
Bourdillon, Jaques
1954 Box 3
Boyd, Eugene S.
1951 Box 3
Brach, Ernst A.
1947 Box 3
Brand, Ervin
1947 Box 3
Brandt, Karl
1943 Box 3
Brasimpex, S.A.
1953 Box 3
Braun, H.
1947 Box 3
Braunstein, A.
1947 Box 3
Breitner, Burghard
1949 Box 3
Brent, Bernhard J.
1946-1951 Box 3
Breusch, F.L.
1947 Box 5
Briggs, A.P.
1947 Box 3
Brockhaus, F.A.
1953-1954 Box 3
Brockmann, Hans
1955 Box 3
Brode, Wallace R.
1948 Box 3
Brookhaven National Laboratory
1952 Box 3
Brooklyn Medical Press, Inc.
1955 Box 3
Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute
Undated Box 3

Inventory of chemicals and equipment

Brown, A.S.
1948 Box 3
Brown, John J.
1942 Box 3
Bucky, Gustav and Frida
1948-1954 Box 3
Budowski, Pierre
1948 Box 3
Bueb, ___
1917 Box 3
Buading, Ernst
1947-1954 Box 3
Buffalo Electrochemical Co., Inc.
1948-1954 Box 3
Burk, Dean
1952-1956 Box 3
Burnott, Lee
1944 Box 3
Business cards
Undated Box 3
Butenandt, Adolph
1947-1956 2.0 folders Box 3
Butts, J.
1952 Box 3
Byk, Heinrich
1916-1917 Box 3
Cagan, Ralph
1942-1947 Box 3
Cahen de Gossels, Melanie
1942 Box 3
Cahill, William M.
1942-1944 Box 3
Cahn, Alice
1955 Box 3
Calgon, Inc.
1942-1949 Box 3
California Fruit Growers Exchange
1944 Box 3
California Packing Corp.
1944 Box 3
Calvin, Melvin
1948-1954 Box 3
Cannan, R. Keith
1952 Box 3
Cantoni, Giulio L.
1952 Box 3
Carbide & Carbon Chemicals Comp.
1942-1953 Box 3
Carl Neuberg Society for International Scientific Relations
1947-1965 3.0 folders Box 4
Carlsbergfondets Biologiske Inst.
1936 Box 3
Carson, S.F.
1952-1953 Box 4
Casper, Leopold
1949-1954 Box 4
Cassel, Hans M.
1944 Box 4
Castor, John G.B.
1952 Box 4
Cattell, Jaques
1942 Box 4
Celanese Chemical Corp.
1947 Box 4
Chectroff, Toby
1943 Box 4
Chanley, T.
1954 Box 4
Chargaff, Ervin
1953-1955 Box 4
Chatelet, A.
1949 Box 4
Chemical Abstracts
1952 Box 4
Chemical and Engineering News
1947-1952 Box 4
Chemical industries
1946 Box 4
Chemical Publishing Co., Inc.
1946 Box 4
Chemische Werke
1937 Box 4
Chesapeake and Ohio Railway Co.
1947 Box 4
CIBA
1948 Box 4
Clark, G.L.
1953 Box 4
Clark, R. Lee
1947 Box 4
Cleary, John Thomas
1954 Box 4
Coghill, Robert D.
1943 Box 4
Cohen, Joseph
1942 Box 4
Cohen, Philip P.
1948 Box 4
Cohen, Ralph
Undated Box 4
Cohen, Seymour S.
1946 Box 4
Cohn, Adolf
1943 Box 4
Cohn, Reinhold
1952 Box 4
Collatz, Herbert
1951-1955 Box 4
Colovick, Sidney P.
1952-1955 Box 4
Commercial Solvent Corp.
1944 Box 4
Cook, A.H.
1955 Box 4
Coper, Kurt
1947 Box 4
Corbiere, Henri
1953 Box 4
Cori, Carl F.
1942-1951 Box 4
Corn Products Refining Company
1943-1953 Box 4
Corn Products Sales
1952-1953 Box 4
Correns, Carl W.
1954 Box 4
Cosla, O. Kauffmann
1948 Box 4
Cronheim, Georg E.
1946 Box 4
Crossley, M.L.
1947 Box 4
Crowheim, Elarenz
1949 Box 4
Crown Heights Hospital
1943 Box 4
Crowther, Joan P.
1954 Box 4
Crzellitzer, R.
1944 Box 4
Daniels, William F.
1952 Box 4
Danon, J. Robert
1956 Box 4
Davidson, Don
1949 Box 4
Davies, Gertrude D. Maengwyn
1945-1955 Box 4
Davies, Rita
1947 Box 4
Davis, Bernard D.
1953 Box 4
Dazian Foundation for Medical Research
1943-1950 2.0 folders Box 4
DeBogoy, Eugene
1942 Box 4
Dehnert, Johannes
1953 Box 4
DeMilt, Clara
1953 Box 4
DeMoss, Ralph D.
1951 Box 4
Denslow, L. Alton
1946 Box 4
Derby, Roger A.
1943 Box 4
Deuel, Harry J.
1947 Box 4
Deulofeu, Venancio
1948 Box 4
Deuticke, Hans Joachim
1951-1956 Box 4
Deutsche Physiologisch-Chemische Gesellschaft
1953 Box 4
Deutsche Staatszeitung und Herold (New York)
1954 Box 4
Deutsches Generalkonsulat - Amsterdam
1939 Box 4
Diergarten, Harro H.
1955 Box 4
Dirscherl, W.
1930-1931 Box 4
Dische, Zacharias
1943-1952 Box 4
Distillation Products, Inc.
1948-1952 Box 4
Dittmer, Karl
1947 Box 4
Doering, William von Eggers
1952-1953 Box 4
Doerr, Carl
1947 Box 4
Dorer, Herbert
1942 Box 4
Doudoroff, M.
1947 Box 4
Dow Chemical Company
1942 Box 4
Dresel, Rita
1948-1951 Box 4
DuPont de Nemours Company
1946 Box 4
Durig, Arnold
1946-1954 Box 4
Durst, Robert F.
1942 Box 5
Duschinsky, R.
1942 Box 5
Eastman Kodak Company
1942-1948 Box 5
Ebel, J.P.
1954 Box 5
Edwal Laboratories
1941-1942 Box 5
Edwards Brothers, Inc.
1943-1944 Box 5
Ehrenberg, Paul
1952-1953 Box 5
Ehrenstein, Maximilian
1943 Box 5
Ehrlich, Felix
1942 Box 5
Ehrman, Rolf
1944 Box 5
Eirich, Frederick R.
1954 Box 5
Eisenberg, Max
1947 Box 5
Elias, Herbert
1947-1955 Box 5
Elias, Victor
1955 Box 5
Ella Sachs-Plotz Foundation
1942-1950 2.0 folders Box 5
Elmenau, Johannes von
1952 Box 5
Elsevier Publishing Company
1952-1953 Box 5
Elvehjem, Conrad A.
1943-1944 Box 5
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced
1945 Box 5
Emerz, Arthur F.
1954 Box 5
Enders, Curt
1948 Box 5
Endo Products, Inc.
1943-1949 Box 5
Enzymologia
1946 Box 5
Erlenmeyer, H.
1955-1956 Box 5
Ernst-Reuter-Gesellschaft
1954-1955 Box 5
Euler, Hans von
1947-1956 Box 5
European Steamship and Airways Agency
1952-1953 Box 5
Excerpta Medica
1947 Box 5
Experimental Medicine and Surgery
1943 Box 5
Fairmount Chemical Company, Inc.
1942-1943 Box 5
Farber, Eduard
1947-1955 Box 5
Farkes, Karl
Undated Box 5

Immigranten Lied

Farmer, Chester J.
1943-1945 Box 5
Feazel, C.E.
1952 Box 5
Federal Yeast Corporation
1943-1956 Box 5
Feigenbaum, Jakob Ilany
1941-1955 Box 5
Feigl, Fritz
1946-1954 Box 5
Feigl, Hans
1946 Box 5
Feinberg, Abraham
1952 Box 5
Feitelberg, Serafima
1944 Box 5
Feldmann, Leonhard
1947 Box 5
Felix, Kurt
1948 Box 5
Fenchel, F.W.
1948 Box 5
Fenwick, William
1956 Box 5
Frischel-Briess, Robert
1943 Box 5
Fischer, Emil
Undated Box 5
Fischer, Franz Gottwald
1947-1956 Box 5
Fischer, G.
1954 Box 5
Fischer, H.
1954 Box 5
Fischer, Hermann O.L.
1947-1955 Box 5
Fishberg, Ella
Undated Box 5
Fishman, William H.
1951 Box 5
Fleischhacker, Desider
1945-1948 Box 5
Fleischmann Laboratories
1942-1956 Box 5
Flemming, Thomas P.
1955 Box 5
Flint, Eric
1947 Box 5
Fodor, Andor
1942-1954 Box 5
Fodor, Paul J.
1947-1954 Box 5
Foerst, Wilhelm
1954 Box 5
Fono, Andras
1947 Box 5
Foote Mineral Company
1943 Box 5
Forjaz, Pereira
1952 Box 5
Forschungen und Fortschritte
1955 Box 5
Forssman, Sven
1947 Box 5
Forsyth, W.G.C.
1948 Box 5
Foss, Olav
1953-1955 Box 5
Foster, Jackson W.
1951 Box 5
Fox Company
1955 Box 5
France. Ministere des Affaires Etrangeres
1940 Box 5
Franck, James
1955 Box 5
Frank, ___
1951 Box 5
Frank, Alfred
1946-1947 Box 5
Frank, Fritz
1948 Box 6
Franke, Eric E.
1956 Box 6
Frankel, Max
1947-1951 Box 6
Frankenburg, Walter G.
1943-1955 Box 6
Frankenthal, Lea
1943-1944 Box 6
Frankfurter Bank
1952-1954 Box 6
Frankl, Oscar
1942 Box 6
Fred, E.B.
1942-1944 Box 6
Freie Universität Berlin
1952 Box 6
Frenzen, E.
1948 Box 6
Freund, R.
1941 Box 6
Fried, Seraphine
1947 Box 6
Friedberg, Felix
1954-1955 Box 6
Friedenwald, Jonas S.
1951 Box 6
Friedmann, Ernst
1954-1955 Box 6
Friends of the Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
1944 Box 6
Fritzsching, Erwin T.
1942-1944 Box 6
Froehlich, A.
1953 Box 6
Fromageot, Claude
1940-1953 Box 6
Fruton, Joseph S.
1953 Box 6
Fulton, John F.
1953 Box 6
Funk, Casimir
1954 Box 6
Furst, Walter M.
1947 Box 6
Gaffron, Hans
1943-1956 Box 6
Gatt, Simon
1951 Box 6
Geiger, Ernest
1955-1956 Box 6
Geiger, Rudolf
1947 Box 6
Gemant, Andrew
1947 Box 6
General Beverage Corporation
1946 Box 6
General Biochemicals, Inc.
1952 Box 6
General Chemical Company
1954-1955 Box 6
General Cigar Company
1954-1955 Box 6
Genevois, L.
1939-1948 Box 6
Gerriets, Jan
1952 Box 6
Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker
1955 Box 6
Gessler, A.E.
1943-1956 Box 6
Gey, K. Friedrich
1953-54 Box 6
Gibbs, Martin
1954 Box 6
Ginsburg, Sara
1946 Box 6
Ginzburg, Mary
1942 Box 6
Gisel, Eugene A.
1948 Box 6
Glaser, Hilde
1943 Box 6
Glass, Bentley
1956 Box 6
Glattfield, I.W.E.
1944 Box 6
Glick, David
1954 Box 6
Glucuronolactone - Literature Briefs
Undated Box 6
Glum, Friedrich
1947-1948 Box 6
Glycerine
Undated Box 6
Glycerine manufacture - Patents and reports
1918-1945 Box 6
Glycerine Producers' Association
1944 Box 6
Goldenberg, Geromont & Company - Chemische Fabrik
1916-1918 Box 6
Goldenberg, Harry
1955 Box 6
Goldenberg-Oetker Stiftung
1917-1936 Box 6
Goldschmidt, Th.
1952 Box 6
Goldschmiedt, Henry
1942-1956 Box 6
Gomori, George
1955 Box 6
Goran, Morris
1947 Box 6
Gottlieb, David
1944 Box 6
Gottschalk, A.
1947 Box 6
Gradenwitz, Felix
Undated Box 6
Grauer, Amelie
1948-1951 Box 6
Great Western Sugar Company
1946 Box 6
Greef, R.W. & Company, Inc.
1942-1943 Box 6
Green, David E.
1943-1954 Box 6
Greenstein, Jesse P.
1955 Box 6
Greenwald, Isidor
1942-1955 Box 6
Gregor, H.P.
1954 Box 6
Grodman, Pearl Gladys
1943 Box 6
Gross, D.
1954 Box 6
Grosse, Günther
1952 Box 6
Grube, K.H.
1952 Box 6
Gruenfelder, Benno
1946-1947 Box 6
Gruyter, Walter de & Company
1954 Box 6
Gudemann, Josef
1954 Box 6
Guggenheim, M.
1947-1955 Box 6
Gusowski, Wolfgang S.
1946-1947 Box 6
Gustavson, K.H.
1952 Box 6
Gutcho, M.
1955 Box 6
Guttman, Eugen
1947 Box 6
Gyorgyi, Albert Szent
1955-1956 Box 6
Haas, Erwin
1952 Box 7
Haberland, U.
1955 Box 7
Hadra, Lisa
1944 Box 7
Hägglund, Erik
1923-1947 Box 7
Häusler, H.
1952-1955 Box 7
Haffenreffer & Company
1942 Box 7
HAGEDA (Handelgesellschaft Deutscher Apotheker)
1916 Box 7
Hagstrom, W.C.
1953 Box 7
Hahn, Amandus
1928 Box 7

Über die Dehydrierung der Bernsteinsäure

Hahn, Edith
1953 Box 7
Hahn, Hugo
1955 Box 7
Hahn, Otto
1947-1956 Box 7
Hakala, Reino W.
1951 Box 7
Hall Laboratories
1945 Box 7
Hamburger, Adolf
1941-1954 Box 7
Hamer, D.
1954 Box 7
Handler, Philip
1954 Box 7
Happold, Frank C.
1955 Box 7
Harovitz, Charles L.
1955 Box 7
Harrow, Benjamin
1955 Box 7
Harvey Society
1955 Box 7
Hassid, W. Zev
1944-1948 Box 7
Hauptmann, Heinrich
1954 Box 7
Haurowitz, Felix
1954 Box 7
Haworth, Sir Norman
1947 Box 7
Hebrew University of Jerusalem
1940-1956 Box 7
Hedel, A.J.
1949 Box 7
Heegaard, Erik
Undated Box 7
Hehre, Edward J.
1947 Box 7
Heidelberger, Michael
1953-1954 Box 7
Heifetz, Harold
1951 Box 7
Heilbrunn, L.V.
1955 Box 7
Heineman, D.N.
1944 Box 7
Heiss, J.
1953 Box 7
Helferich, B.
1953-1954 Box 7
Henderson, L.M.
Undated Box 7
Herbert, N.D.
1953 Box 7
Herbst, Robert M.
1943 Box 7
Herlinger, E.
1947 Box 7
Hermann, Siegvart
1947-1956 Box 7
Herrmann, George R.
1947 Box 7
Herz, Hermann
1942 Box 7
Hestrin, S.
1947 Box 7
Heublum, R.
1945-1946 Box 7
Heubner, Lisa
1946-54 Box 7
Heubner, Wolfgang
1952-1954 Box 7
Heuss, Th.
1954 Box 7
Hevesy, G. von
1951 Box 7
Heyden Chemical Company
1944 Box 7
Hirsch, Julius
1947-1953 Box 7
Hochmuth, Ida
1954 Box 7
Hockett, Robert C.
1943-1951 Box 7
Hofer, Gustav
1951 Box 7
Hoffmann, Julius C.
1954 Box 7
Hoffmann-La Roche, Inc.
1944-1954 Box 7
Hoffmann-Ostenhof, C.
1954 Box 7
Hofmann, Eduard
1948-1955 2.0 folders Box 7
Hofmann, Elsa
1955 Box 7
Holzhausens, Buchdruckerei Adolf, Nfg.
1955-1956 Box 7
Hopkins, R.H.
1947 Box 7
Hoppert,Carl A.
1953 Box 7
Horovitz, J.
1947 Box 7
Huber, Wolfgang
1952-1956 Box 7
Hudson, Claude
1946-1948 Box 7
Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
1956 Box 7
Hurie, W.L.
1948 Box 7
Huttrer, Charles P.
1943-1956 Box 7
Hynes, W.A.
1948 Box 7
Indium Corporation of America
1943 Box 7
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry
1949 Box 7
Industrial Research Institute
1948-1949 Box 7
Institute of Paper Chemistry
1948 Box 7
Interchemical Corporation
1948-1955 Box 7
Interscience Publishers
1942-1956 Box 7
Invertase Publishers
1941-1942 Box 7
Ipatieff, Vladimir
1947-1949 Box 7
Isball, Horace S.
1942-1948 Box 7
Jacobsohn, Kurt
1929-1956 5.0 folders Box 8
Jacoby, Kurt
1952-1955 Box 8
Jacoby, Lotte
1947 Box 8
Jacoby, Margarete
1947-1955 Box 8
Jahrstorfer, Michael
1952-1956 Box 8
Jander, G.
1952 Box 8
Java Pacific Line
1940 Box 8
Jena Vertretung
Undated Box 8
Jewish Cultural Reconstruction, Inc.
1951 Box 8
Jewish Way
1943 Box 8
Johnson, Walter J.
1946-1952 Box 8
Joslin, Elliot P.
1955 Box 8
Journal of American Chemical Society
1942-1952 Box 8
Junk, W.
1945-1956 Box 8
Just, G.
1916-1917 Box 8
Jutrator, Jeanne
1943 Box 8
Kahler, Francis von
1947 Box 8
Kaiser-Wilhelm Gesellschaft zur Forderung der Wisenschaften
1925-1949 Box 8
Kaiser-Wilhelm Institut für Biochemie
1927 Box 8
Kaiser-Wilhelm Institut für Experimentelle Therapie
1913 Box 8
Kaiser-Wilhelm Institut für Physikalische Chemie und Elektrochemie
1916 Box 8
Kaiser-Wilhelm Institut für Zellphysiologie
1952 Box 8
Kalckar, Reman M.
1944-1946 Box 8
Kantrowitz, Dorothy
1944 Box 8
Kapfhammer, ___
1953 Box 8
Karger, S.A.G.
1954 Box 8
Karpen, M.
1952-1953 Box 8
Kass, J. Peter
1946-1947 Box 8
Kelemen, George
1948 Box 8
Keller, ___
1942 Box 8