Navigation
Abstract

A military officer and civilian superintendent of the École Polytechnique in Paris, Albert de Rochas became one of the best known psychic researchers in late nineteenth century France. His interests centered on uncovering the laws behind psychic forces, somnambulism, magnetism and mesmerism, hypnotism, perception, and reincarnation. A prolific writer, he studied a number of Spiritualist and Spiritist mediums, including Maria Mayo (Lina), Eusapia Paladino, and D. D. Home.

Despite the relatively small size of the collection, the papers of Albert de Rochas open an important window onto the development of psychic science in fin de siecle France and onto the cultural impact of Spiritualism. The collection includes a scattered, but valuable selection of correspondence with fellow psychic researchers, editors, mediums, and other individuals interested in psychic research, and a valuable set of 69 spirit and psychic photographs, that Rochas collected as evidence of psychic forces, and as documentation of séances, mediums, and "sensitives." Rochas' work on the exteriorization of sensibility and studies of Lina, Charles Bailey, and Paladino are relatively well documented, and his interests in the laws of psychic phenomena, reincarnation, and the exmigration of the living soul run throughout.

Background note

A military engineer and one of the leading psychic scientists in fin de siècle France, Albert de Rochas was involved in research into a wide range of esoteric topics, from the spirit mediumship of Eusapia Paladino to telepathy and telekinesis, hypnosis, human magnetism, somnambulism, reincarnation, and physical unfolding.

Born into an old Provencal family at Saint Firmin (Haute-Alpes) on May 20, 1837, Rochas entered the Lycée de Grenoble with the intention of studying literature, assuming that he would follow his father and grandfather into the law. When he discovered, however, that the law was less than intellectually stimulating, he switched to mathematics -- a subject at which he excelled -- and set his sights on a career in engineering. After winning the school's prix d'honneur in 1856, he entered the École Polytechnique in Paris to continue his education and to prepare for a career in the military.

In 1861, Rochas was commissioned as Lieutenant de Genie at Montpelier and quickly distinguished himself for his knowledge of the engineering and for his superb administrative abilities. Rising quickly through the ranks to Captain (1864), he was assigned to series of increasingly important assignments after the Franco-Prussian War, culminating in a stint as inspector of studies at the École Polytechnique and a short period as interim director. After earning a promotion to battalion commander in 1880, Rochas was made chief of engineers in 1887 and was given responsibility for updating and strengthening the fortifications around Grenoble.

A scholar at heart, Rochas first became interested in the technology of ancient and medieval engineering while working on the construction of fortifications in the Jura in 1865. His initial attempt at academic writing was a translation of Veterum Mathematicorum Opera (1693), an 11th century Alexandrian treatise on fortification and machines of war, after which he took detours into Hellenism and into the physics and mechanics used by Egyptian priests in constructing their temples. His research and writing were well respected by his scholarly peers, his translations of Greek texts earning him a medal from the Société des Études Grecques.

The work for which Rochas was best known, however, evolved out of an encounter in the mid-1860s with a young man who was susceptible to being magnetized. Even as he plunged into his research on ancient sciences and military history, Rochas applied himself with increasing vigor to the psychic and occult sciences. His first important book on psychic science, Les Forces non Definiés (Paris: Masson, 1887), defined the terms of much of his later research in seeking a scientific basis for occult phenomena. From the mid-1880s into the 1910s, Rochas produced a steady stream of articles and monographs to establish the basic principles behind the exteriorization of sensibility and presented what he was convinced was empirical proof for the existence of a magnetic fluid capable of acting directly on the central nervous system. In 1888, he declined a further promotion in the military to become civilian director at the École Polytechnique, probably because he wished to devote more time to his studies.

Eclectic and evolving, tinged with the Orientalist currents running through contemporary Theosophy and Spiritualism, Rochas touched upon a wide range of topics. Following his widely read work on ancient science, La Science des Philosophes at l'Art des Thaumaturges dans l'Antiquité (Paris: Masson, 1882), he turned to topics such as hypnotism ( L'État Profond de l'Hypnose), death and reincarnation ( Les Vies Successives, 1911; La Suspension de la Vie, 1913), telekinesis ( Extériorisation de la motricité, 1896), and the physical basis of psychic experience ( Les Fluides des Magnétiseurs, 1891; Extériorisation de la Sensibilité, 1895; Les Frontières de la Physique,1898; and Les Frontières de la Science, 1902-1904). He was particularly renowned for a series of experiments conducted with his friends General Thomassin, John Maxwell, De Watteville, and A. de Gramont on the famous Italian medium Eusapia Paladino in which they reported the materialization of spirit hands. His detailed study of the hypnotic subject, Maria Mayo (Mlle Lina), was part of an attempt to assess the influence of music upon human emotions and to measure the human physical response ( Les Sentiments, La Musique, et les Gestes, 1900).

Rochas believed firmly that the scientific study of psychic phenomena would allay people of the fear of death and, by replacing faith with scientifically sound reason, would bring them into closer connection to God. He was named an honorary member of the Académie Delphinale, the Académies of Savoie, Blois, and Aix, and the Sociétéde Psychologie Scientifique of Munich, and was made a Chevalier in the Legion d'Honneur in 1875 and an officer in 1889. He died on September 2, 1914.

Scope and content

Despite the relatively small size of the collection, the papers of Albert de Rochas open an important window onto the development of psychic science in fin de siecle France and onto the cultural impact of Spiritualism. The collection includes a scattered, but valuable selection of correspondence with fellow psychic researchers, editors, mediums, and other individuals interested in psychic research, and a valuable set of 69 spirit and psychic photographs, that Rochas collected as evidence of psychic forces, and as documentation of séances, mediums, and "sensitives." Rochas' work on the exteriorization of sensibility and studies of Maria Mayo (Lina), Charles Bailey, and Eusapia Paladino are relatively well documented, and his interests in the laws of psychic phenomena, reincarnation, and the exmigration of the living soul run throughout.

Other aspects of Rochas' career are much less well documented. There is little of family interest in the collection, and only a few items pertaining to his interest in ancient history or engineering. His military career is also poorly documented, although the collection includes a number of letters from former colleagues in the military, some of a personal nature and others relating to military history.

Collection information

Provenance

Acquired from John Gach Books, 2002.

Preferred citation

Cite as: Albert de Rochas Papers, American Philosophical Society.

Processing information

Catalogued by rsc, 2004.

Indexing Terms

Genre(s)

  • Photographs
  • Radiographs

Personal Name(s)

  • Aksakov, Aleksandr, 1832-1903
  • Bailey, Charles
  • Besant, Annie Wood, 1847-1933
  • Buguet, Edouard-Isidore, 1840-
  • Foras, Eloi Amédée Jacques François, 1830-1899
  • Hasdeu-Istrati, Bogdan Petriceicu, 1837-1907
  • Henry, Charles
  • Lina
  • Mucha, Alphonse Marie, 1860-1939
  • Nadar, Félix, 1820-1910
  • Orléans, Henri Philippe Marie, prince d', 1867-1907
  • Paladino, Eusapia, 1854-
  • Pelletier, Horace
  • Reichel, Willy
  • Rochas d'Aiglun, Albert de, 1837-1914
  • Rostoptchine, Lydie, 1837-1915
  • Schrenck-Notzing, Albert Philibert Franz, 1862-1929
  • Tissot, James, 1836-1902
  • Van der Naillen, A. (Albert), 1820-1928
  • Visani Scozzi, Paolo

Subject(s)

  • Dreams
  • Ecstasy
  • Hypnotism
  • Magnetism
  • Mediums
  • Music--Psychological aspects
  • Parapsychology
  • Psychology--France
  • Reincarnation
  • Spirit photography
  • Spiritism--France
  • Spiritualism--France
  • Telepathy
  • Theosophy
  • X-rays
Collection overview
Bulk, 1882-1908; 1845-1916 1.25 lin. feet Box 1-3

Although incomplete, even fragmentary, Rochas' correspondence touches on a wide range of his interests in psychic research between about 1885 and 1910, including some scarce published articles from the psychic and popular press and several pamphlets on topics of interest. In most cases, correspondents are represented by only one or two letters lacking Rochas' replies. Pieced together, however, these provide an outline of his major research interests and of his connections to other significant psychic researchers in France, Germany, Italy, and elsewhere, such as Albert Philibert Franz Schrenk-Notzing, Willy Reichel, Bogdan Hasdeu-Istrati, and Alexander Aksakoff. Rochas also maintained correspondence with a number of artists and writers, including James Tissot, Alphonse Mucha (although there are no letters from Mucha present).

Concerned with documenting Spiritualist séances and exploring the underlying basis of psychic phenomena, Rochas received a regular influx of letters from other investigators describing their experiences and experiments. His colleagues kept Rochas informed of the activities of the mediums Eusapia Paladino and Charles Bailey, of research conducted in Italy, France, Germany, Australia, and the United States (see A. Van der Naillen), and there are excellent accounts of experiences with somewhat lesser known operators such as Mme Escalier (see Fernand Boudron), Mme. Adam (see the fascinating 10 page account of psychic occurrences at a seance by Lydie Rostoptchine), Mme Corner, and the Theosophist Mme Blavatsky. More unusual is the letter of M. Lagelouse, who writes that she has been persecuted for eight years, and who sends the names of friends near the moon to vouch for her.

The Orientalism that marked Spiritualism and Spiritism in the latter decades of the 19th century can be seen throughout the Rochas Papers, not only in the correspondence with or about Theosophists. There are excellent letters on reincarnation from G. Berger, C. Cania, and Annie Besant (the Theosophist), and there is a hint of it in his interest in the possibility of the exmigration of the living soul (see Alexandre Goupil's Cas de vision fantomale and Cas de vision fantomale d'un vivant) and his work on Ecstasy. There is a considerable quantity of material on the sensitive Maria Mayo (Lina) -- Schrenck-Notzing's subject -- and on the physiological effect of music (see e.g. Frandoni Lacombe, Atelier Mucha). Among the miscellaneous items of note are a wonderful letter by the Danish military engineer E. Christmas-Dirckinck-Holmfeld on spirit photography, and a small number of letters from otherwise unidentified persons (e.g. Berthe Dole) who wrote to share their personal psychic experiences.

1873-1921 0.5 lin. feet Box 3

Rochas evidently placed a great importance on photography as a means of documenting elusive spiritual and psychic phenomena, and the Rochas Papers includes 69 photographs depicting spirits, psychic forces, séances, mediums, and "sensitives" taken between ca.1875 and 1900. Spirit photographs seem to have been of particular interest, and his papers include two interesting images taken by the famed (and debunked) Parisian Eugène Buguet, two prints of the spirit Bien Boa (a "Brahmin" materialized by the medium Marthe Béraud), and several other images, the most intriguing of which was taken in Elizabeth, N.J., of Elena de Obarrio, in which her guardian spirit and the spirit of her sleeping (and very much alive) brother also appear. This image was taken by, or with the assistance of the Cuban medium J. R. Simoni. Rochas also kept photographs of a séance conducted by Guy de Fontenay with Eusapia Paladino at Montfor l'Amaury, July 1897, including two cabinet cards of a séance in progress and a psychically-produced image of Paladino's face.

Less common are a suite of photographs that demonstrate the reality of psychic forces. A fine carte de visite of Gustave Flaschoen taken by the British photographer Brittlebank displays the "force psychique sortant de ses mains," while three cartes provide a dramatic illustration of psychic force being generated by a circle held by the medium John Beattie in Bristol, England. The photographs Rochas collected of "sensitives" reflect his interests in the physical effects of art and music and his interest in the experience of religious or spiritual ecstasy.

Other images document psychic forces in less concrete ways. The collection includes a series of 11 images associated with the Romanian psychic investigator Bogdan Hasdeu-Istrati (see also his correspondence), 11 "doubles" of Mme. Lambert, sent to Rochas by the editor G. Delanne, and the image by Mme de Valpinson are generally difficult to interpret visually, while in those of Paolo Visani Scozzi (apparently mounted for public display) one can see dim faces arising from amorphous psychic clouds. Rochas was also not coincidentally interested in x-radiography, acquiring a very early (March 1897) x-radiograph of a hand, apparently kept as demonstration that photography could reveal structures otherwise hidden to the eye. Equally interesting are several images taken by the photographer Nadar, including five boudoir cards of Rochas himself with an astral body "obtenu par trucage."



Detailed Inventory
Series I. Correspondence
Bulk, 1882-1908; 1845-1916 1.25 lin. feet Box 1-3

Although incomplete, even fragmentary, Rochas' correspondence touches on a wide range of his interests in psychic research between about 1885 and 1910, including some scarce published articles from the psychic and popular press and several pamphlets on topics of interest. In most cases, correspondents are represented by only one or two letters lacking Rochas' replies. Pieced together, however, these provide an outline of his major research interests and of his connections to other significant psychic researchers in France, Germany, Italy, and elsewhere, such as Albert Philibert Franz Schrenk-Notzing, Willy Reichel, Bogdan Hasdeu-Istrati, and Alexander Aksakoff. Rochas also maintained correspondence with a number of artists and writers, including James Tissot, Alphonse Mucha (although there are no letters from Mucha present).

Concerned with documenting Spiritualist séances and exploring the underlying basis of psychic phenomena, Rochas received a regular influx of letters from other investigators describing their experiences and experiments. His colleagues kept Rochas informed of the activities of the mediums Eusapia Paladino and Charles Bailey, of research conducted in Italy, France, Germany, Australia, and the United States (see A. Van der Naillen), and there are excellent accounts of experiences with somewhat lesser known operators such as Mme Escalier (see Fernand Boudron), Mme. Adam (see the fascinating 10 page account of psychic occurrences at a seance by Lydie Rostoptchine), Mme Corner, and the Theosophist Mme Blavatsky. More unusual is the letter of M. Lagelouse, who writes that she has been persecuted for eight years, and who sends the names of friends near the moon to vouch for her.

The Orientalism that marked Spiritualism and Spiritism in the latter decades of the 19th century can be seen throughout the Rochas Papers, not only in the correspondence with or about Theosophists. There are excellent letters on reincarnation from G. Berger, C. Cania, and Annie Besant (the Theosophist), and there is a hint of it in his interest in the possibility of the exmigration of the living soul (see Alexandre Goupil's Cas de vision fantomale and Cas de vision fantomale d'un vivant) and his work on Ecstasy. There is a considerable quantity of material on the sensitive Maria Mayo (Lina) -- Schrenck-Notzing's subject -- and on the physiological effect of music (see e.g. Frandoni Lacombe, Atelier Mucha). Among the miscellaneous items of note are a wonderful letter by the Danish military engineer E. Christmas-Dirckinck-Holmfeld on spirit photography, and a small number of letters from otherwise unidentified persons (e.g. Berthe Dole) who wrote to share their personal psychic experiences.

Adam, Mme
1901 Feb. 2 items Box 1

Re: Lina

Adamovich, Elisabeth
1903 Dec. 18 2 items Box 1

Hypnotism and photography. Carte de visite of Adamovich transferred to Ser. II (under Varenik and Vladimirov.

Aksakoff, Alexander -- Un cas de dématérialization partielle du corps d'un medium
n.d. AMs, 28p. Box 1

Mentions Guppy, Blavatsky, and others

Albarracin, Francisco
1902 April 11 ALS, 2p. Box 1

Wishes to meet to discuss Rochas' psychological studies

Anastay, E.
1906 Apr. 29 ALS, 4p. Box 1
Argus de la Presse
1896, 1905 2 newsclippings Box 1
Arnould, Arthur
1894 Dec. 21 ALS, 3p. Box 1

Theosophy

Astruc, S.
1889 Dec. 19 ALS, 2p. Box 1
Atelier Mucha -- Premier Essai d'un Ballet: Avec Gestes et Pas Déterminés par les Actions Réflexes de la Musique sur l'Organisme Humain
1899 Dec. 3 Pr. program, 6p. Box 1

With images taken from Rochas' "Les Sentiments, la Musique et le Geste"

Aubry, Desirée
n.d. PC, 2p. Box 1
Bader, G.
1897 July 9-17 2 ALsS Box 1

Mme Eugenie Engel; translation of the Seherin von Prevorst

Bailey, Charles -- La Seima et Ame -- W. Britton Harvey
1908 AMs, 11p. Box 1

Account of Bailey's "Miracles à Melbourne." Includes newspaper clipping "La disavventura del medium Bailey e de' suoi 'ignicolori'" (in Italian).

Barrett-Lennard, H.
1900 Jan. 1 ALS, 2p. Box 1

In English

Barruet, Elie
1900 Feb. 28-1901 Jan. 30 5 items Box 1
Bartolomeis, Alissandro
n.d. 2 items Box 1

Ghosts of living persons. In Italian

Bénezet, Alfred
1909 Dec. 30-1910 Feb. 11 4 items Box 1

Mention of Charles Bailey, Aksakoff, Reichel, Fontenay, publications. "Nous continuons ici nos expériences." Dematerialization.

Bénezet, Jeannemaire
1908 Dec. 15-1909 Jan. 5 3 ALsS Box 1
Berger, G.
n.d. 2p. Box 1

On Reincarnation.

Besant, Annie
1905 Oct. 7-Nov. 29 2 ALsS Box 1

On Reincarnation.

Bodroun, Fernand
n.d. 2p. (inc.) Box 1

Instances of "exteriorization of sensibility" in séances with Mme Escalier, Mr. Tayons.

Boissans, Archdeacon
n.d. ALS, 4p. Box 1

Photographs and "projections."

Boissonet, A.
1902 Aug. 10 ALS, 3p. Box 1
Borie, Albert -- Études physiognomiques [reading notes?]
n.d. AMs, 4p. Box 1
Bornier, Henri
1889 May 16 ALS 2p. Box 1

L'Art des Thaumaturges, Magnetism.

Bourget, Paul -- Le double de Maupanant
n.d. AMs, 1p. Box 1
Breazeale, Guillaume Eugène
1890 May 19 ALS, 1p. Box 1

From Belton, South Carolina. Wishes to study mathematics in Europe.

Briots, cas aux
1904 June 7 ALS, 2p. (inc.) Box 1

Experiences with Mme Lay-Fonvieille.

Brouardel, P.
1889 Aug. 16 ALS, 1p. Box 1
Cania, C.
1905 Jan. 29 ALS, 4p. Box 1

"Si chaque changement de personalité serait un Entité nouvelle qui se présente, vous seriez trompé!" Magnetism, reincarnation.

Cahagnet, Alphonse -- Les Arcanes de la Vie Future Dévoilés
n.d. Printed pam, 4p. Box 1
Caillard, Paul
1900-1916 4 items Box 1
Calvé, E.
n.d. ALS, 4p. Box 1
Carnot, Adolphe
1900 Nov. 6 Wedding invtitation Box 1
Cavaignac,
n.d. (Dec. 14) ALS, 2p. Box 1
Cazaux, Em de
1896 Dec. 28 ALS, 2p., printed flier Box 1
Christmas-Dirckinck-Holmfeld, E. de
1895 Nov. 20 ALS, 4p. Box 1

Psychic photography

Coillot, Col.
1895 Feb. 9 ALS, 2p. Box 1
Collot, J.
1895 Feb. 8 ALS, 1p. Box 1
Colson, R.
1889 Nov. 17 ALS, 2p. Box 1
Combe, E.
1889 June 3 PC, 1p. Box 1
Constantin, comte de
1898 Mar. 8 ALS, 2p. Box 1

Magnetism.

Cotes, Jean
1900 April 11 ALS, 3p. Box 1
Croula, Edward
1897 June 21 ALS, 2p. Box 1

"Doubles" of the living.

Crozat, Marie de
n.d. ALS, 2p. Box 1
Dame Noire et Dame Blanche
n.d. Newspaper clipping Box 1
Dariex, Dr.
1901 Mar. 25 ALS, 1p. Box 1

Sending address of Schrenck-Notzing

Debron, Paul
1900-1901 7 ALsS Box 1
De la Crois, J. E.
1890 Jan. 17 ALS, 1p. Box 1
Delanne, G.
1911 Apr. 4 ALS, 2p. Box 1
Denizet, H.
1901 Jult 29 ALS, 3p. Box 1
Des Snart, G. T.
n.d. ALS, 3p. Box 1
Dessin a remettre a Devaux... [dessein d'un echelle double]
1839 June Tech. drawing Box 1
Deux Amis arrivent a Mégare...
n.d. AMs, 33p. Box 1

On telepathy and psychic experiences

Doinel, Jules
1892 Mar. 23 ALS, 4p. Box 1
Dole, Berthe
1897 July 5-27 2 ALsS Box 1

Magnetic experiences with her mother and others and practical results.

Dolat, M.
n.d. ALS, 4p. Box 1
Donop
1893 June 3 ALS, 4p. Box 1
Echaguez, F.
n.d. ALS, 6p. Box 1

Interest in psychic experiences. From Spanish Embassy in Paris.

L'Écho du Merveilleux 12, no. 277
1908 July 15 Magazine Box 1
L'Écho du Merveilleux 13, no. 291
1909 Feb. 15 Magazine Box 1

Psychic mag. With article by W. T. Stead

Ecstase
n.d. 20 items Box 1

Includes manuscript notes on ecstasy and divination in antiquity and 4 printed articles: "A propos de reves prémonitaires et de paramnésie;" "Faits anormaux;" "De la folie religieuse;" "Phénomenes Mystiques" (from Le Voile d'Isis)

Faure-Biguet, P.
1894 Dec.-1904 June 10 3 items Box 1
Fernandez, Federico
1898 Sept. 21 ALS, with trans. Box 1

In Spanish, from Sec. of the Argentine Theosophical Society

Fevrier, J.
1890 Aug. 12 ALS, 2p. Box 1
Flamion, J.
1897 Feb. 16 ALS, 5p. Box 1

Psychic experiences.

Flammarion, Sylvie
1893 Jan. 22 ALS, 3p. Box 1
Fontenay, Guillaume de
1910 Jan. 2-Feb. 11 2 ALsS Box 1

Mentions Bailey and Richet.

Foras, Eloi Amédée Jacques François de
1876 Dec. 19 ALS, 4p. Box 1
Foudrier, Adrien
1849 Oct. 16 ALS, 1p. Box 1
Gaillard, M. -- Oisivetés de M. Vauban (Paris: J. Corréard, 1845)
1845 Pam., 137p. : ill. Box 1

With extra sheets from "Sur l'usage que l'on peut faire des Galères en Bretagne."

Gacogne, E.
n.d. ALS, 4p. Box 1
Gobers, F.
1891 Jan. 30 ALS, 3p. Box 1

Military service in Poland, Russia.

Goupil, Alexandre[?]
1909 Aug. 1 ALS and enclosure Box 1

Encloses "Cas de vision fantomale" and "Cas de vision fantomale d'un vivant."

Gordon-Setter-Club -- Programme et Reglement des Field-Trials de 1891
1891 Pam., 8p. Box 1

Paul Caillard, President

Grandhauy, Gerard
1888 Nov. 24 ALS, 4p. Box 1
Gramont, A.
n.d. ALS, 2p. Box 1
Haemmerle, Agathe
1902 June 6 ALS, 4p. Box 1
Hasdeu-Istrati, Bogdan Petriceicu
1895 Aug. 12-1899 Feb. 14 2 ALsS Box 1

See Series II for photographs enclosed.

Havet, L.
1882 Feb. 2 ALS, 2p. Box 1
Henderson, E.
1890 Jan. 29 ALS, 2p. Box 1
Henry, Charles -- Application de Nouveaux Instruments de Précision... à l'Archéologie (Paris: Ernest Leroux, 1890)
1890 Pam., 31p. Box 1
Henry, Charles -- Le Livre de l'Avenir
n.d. Newspaper clipping Box 1
Henry, Charles -- Sur une Loi Générale des Réactions Psycho-Motrices (Paris: Assoc. Française des Sciences, 1888)
1889 Pam., 37p. Box 1
Hübbe-Scheliden, Wilhelm
1901 Apr. 14 PC, 1p. Box 1
Ille[?], Ch. d'
1909 Oct. 14 ALS, 4p. Box 1
Joire, Paul -- "Étude de Psychologie Musicale, L'Expression Pure des Sentiments et des Passions"
n.d. 8p. Box 1

With photos of Lina

Kardec, Allan -- Phénomènes Spirites Observés auGroupe Amitié de Lyon de 1884 à 1890 (Tours, 1895)
1895 Pam, 29p. Box 1
Keil, Alfred
1903 May 25 ALS, 1p. Box 1
Kjellman, F.
1889 Aug. 21 ALS, 2p. Box 1

Human magnetism.

Labadye, cte de
n.d. ALS, 2p. Box 2
Lacombe, Mad. Frandoni
n.d. ALS, 7p. Box 2

Music and the sentiments.

Lacoste
1893 Aug. 10 ALS, 4p. Box 2
Laffaut, C.
1889 May 9 ALS, 4p. Box 2
Lagelouse, M.
1903 Mar. 10 ALS, 4p. Box 2

Has been persecuted for eight years; sends names of friends near the moon to vouch for her.

Lamontas, Marie de
n.d. 5 ALsS Box 2
Langalerud, G. de
1890 Feb. 2, 22 2 ALsS Box 2
Le Bon, Gustave
n.d. Pr. Invitation Box 2
Lemoine, Emile
n.d. ANS, 1p. Box 2
Lina
  2 folders Box 2
Folder 1
1884 2 items Box 2

Lina M. was a young woman with whom, Schrenk-Notzing conducted experiments in thought transferrance. Includes pam: Premier Essay d'un Ballet and copy of Bulletin de l'Imprimerie et de la Librarie, Oct. 25, 1884.

Folder 2
1901 Nov. 4 ALS, 2p. Box 2

Includes 4 other items of uncertain relationship foldered together.

Linder
1894 Mar. 10 ALS with encl. Box 2

Encloses letter to Linder

Magnin, Emile
1904-1905 5 items Box 2

Includes 2 ALsS, PC, and 2 pams: "'Magdeleine' Étude sur le Geste au Moyen de l'Hypnose" and "De l'Interprétation artistique" (with photos of Lina).

Marie(?)
1906 Jan. 21 ALS, 1p. Box 2

Dariex has recommended Rochas as the person to give permission to reproduce photographs of "doubles." Author is editor of Nice Illustré.

Les Matérialisations
1906 Pr.Ms, 18p. Box 2
Maugin, L.(?)
1888 Nov. 9 ALS, 2p. Box 2
Maurice, C.
1900 July 10 ALS, 1p. Box 2
Maxwell, Joseph
1905, 1910 2 items Box 2

Includes copy of Maxwell's pam. Sur les Phénomènes de Hantise (Paris, 1905).

Mesnard, H.
1911 Mar. 28 ALS, 2p. Box 2

Sending a photograph taken by new process. Includes note and envelope that may not be related.

Meyerson, Émile -- Les Travaux de M. Charles Henry sur une Théorie Mathématique de l'Expression (Paris: Armand Collin, 1890)
1890 Pam., 5p. Box 2
Montorsaux, Georges
n.d. ALS, 2p. Box 2
Moskvitissoff, Barbe de
1897 Apr. 15 ALS, 3p. Box 2
Moulins, L.
n.d. ALS, 1p. Box 2
Néon, Françcois de -- De Françcois de Néon, Courrier de Paris, Sue le Sueil du Mystère
n.d. AMs, 6p. Box 2
Occultism, notes
n.d. AMs, 14 items Box 2
Occultisme Pratique
n.d. Pr. Ms, 6p. Box 2
Olivier, Emile
1894 July 12 AMsS Poem, 3p. Box 2
Orléans, Henri Philippe Marie, prince d'
n.d. 5 items Box 2

Includes 3 ALsS, newspaper clipping on Orleans, and calling card for Robert d'Orleans. Mentions Eusapia Paladino.

Peaucellier, Gen.
1888 Sept. 26 Pr. Circ. LS, 3p. (2 cies) Box 2
Pelletier, Horace
1888-1890 6 ALsS Box 2

Spiritualism and spiritualists

Perneuil, C. de.
1895-1897 2 ALsS Box 2
Perrin, Maurice-Henri
1906 Apr. 7 ALS, 4p. Box 2
Perrot, G.
1887 May 30 ALS, 4p. Box 2
Pfeifer, Xaver -- "Des Goldenen Schnittes," Sphinx 4, 24 (1887): 369 ff.
1887 Pr. M, 28p. Box 2

In German

Pierrou(?), Gen.
n.d. 3 ALsS Box 2
Pillot, J.
n.d. ALS, 2p. Box 2
Pinot, Anna
1893 May 22 ALS, 3p. Box 2
Piore, L. C. Em.
1898 Apr. 22 ALS, 2p. Box 2
Polosoff, N. de
1889 Aug. 16 ALS, 2p. Box 2
Pont, Abbé de -- Réflexions à Propos des Origines du Patois de la Tarentaise (Paris, 1872)
1872 Pam., 24p. Box 2
A Propos de Rachel
n.d. AMs, 4p. Box 2
Reboux, Paul (?) -- Instinct des animaux
n.d. AMs, 6p. Box 2

With newspaper clipping signed by Reboux.

Recherches expérimentales au sujet du Fantôme des Vivants
n.d. Pr. Ms, 18p. Box 2
Reichel, Willy
1909-1910 18 items Box 2

Includes letter from Charles Bailey, T. Thomassins, H. Beckh

[Reichel, Willy]. Le Professeur Willy Reichel
1909 AMs, 11p. Box 2
Ripault, A.
1897 Oct. 10 ALS, 4p., encl. Box 2
Revue Ampère 2 (1901)
1901 Pam. Box 2
Revue Suisse des Sciences Psychiques 1 (1913)
1913 Pam., 32p. Box 2
Rochas D'Aiglun, Eugene Auguste Albert [Biographical entry in Dictionnaire Biographique Internationale des écrivains des Artistes...]
n.d. Pr. Ms, p.53-56 Box 2
Rochas D'Aiglun, Eugene Auguste Albert -- Les Doctrines Chimiques au XVIIe Siècle (Paris, 1888)
1888 Pam., 13p. Box 2

Includes loose illus. showing points of connection between points on the face and parts of the body and newspaper clipping "Malades et médecins -- Curieuse étude de M. Albert de Rochas," Sept. 27, 1890.

Rochas D'Aiglun, Eugene Auguste Albert -- "Enrégistrement photographique des êtres et radiations de l'espace," Lumière no. 329 (1908)
1908 Pam. (2 copies), 8p. Box 2

Reprint.

Rochas D'Aiglun, Eugene Auguste Albert -- Les expériences très intéressants de M. de Rochas...
n.d. AMs, 13p. Box 2
Rochas D'Aiglun, Eugene Auguste Albert -- "Les Fantomes des Vivants," Sciences Psychique 5 (1905): 257-272
1895 Pr. Ms, 15p. Box 2
Rochas D'Aiglun, Eugene Auguste Albert -- "Nouvelles expériences relatives au coprs astal et au rapport magnétique," La Vie Nouvelle
n.d. Newspaper clipping, 2p. Box 2
Rochas D'Aiglun, Eugene Auguste Albert -- Psychic research. Notes
n.d. AMs, 10p. Box 2

Notes of "suggestions abstraits," transport of sensibility, photographic evidence.

Rochas D'Aiglun, Eugene Auguste Albert -- "Le Rêve"
n.d. AMs and Pr. Ms, 15p. Box 2

Source uncertain.

Rochas D'Aiglun, Eugene Auguste Albert -- "Les sentiments, la musique et le geste," Journal d'Études Psychologiques
1901 Page proof Box 2
Rochas D'Aiglun, Eugene Auguste Albert -- "Les vies successives"
n.d. Pr. Ms, 4p. Box 2
[Rochas d'Aiglun, Edouard Eugène Louis de. Death notice]
1899 May 5 Pr. Ms, 1p. Box 2
Rochas D'Aiglun, François Gabriel Henri -- Marriage contract with Marie Madeleine Claire Caillard
1901 Aug. 3 DS, 4p. Box 2
Rossolowsko, W.
1901 May 20 ALS, 4p. Box 2

Aksakoff's health. Translation of the Seherin von Prevorst.

Rostoptchine, Lydie
1900 4 items Box 2

Includes 2 ALsS, ANS, List.

Rostoptchine, Lydie -- Une Matinée chez Madame Adam en 1900, par la contesse Lydie Rostoptchine
1900 AMs, 10p. Box 2
[Rothschild, James de]. Le Baron James de Rothschild
n.d. Pr. Ms, 8p. Box 2

With frontis. engr. of Rothschild. Source uncertain, signed (in print) Morgand et Fatout.

Saint Antoine de Padove
n.d. AMs, 12p. Box 2

Probably part of longer mss (pages numbered beginning 5).

Sanchez, F.
1896 Dec. 20 ALS, 3p. Box 2
Sassan, Angèle Autine
1897 June 6 ALS, 3p. Box 2
[Saul, H.]?
n.d. 3 ALsS Box 2
Sausse, Henri -- Le Spiritisme à Lyon (Saint-Amand, Switzerland: Daniel-Chambon, 1905)
1905 Pam., 26p. Box 2
Schrenk-Notzing, Albert Philibert Franz
1901 June 18 Box 2
Schrenk-Notzing, Albert Philibert Franz -- "Telepathische experimente des Sonderausschusses der Psychologischen Gesellschaft zu München," Sphinx
1887 Offprint, 11p. Box 2

Experiments with Lina.

Scymon, R.(?)
1885 Dec. 22 ALS, 4p. Box 2
Sebert, Gen.
1892 May 4 ALS, 2p. Box 2
Sue, Eugene
1846 Oct. 24 ALS, 4p. Box 2

Letter to Eugene Sue from a German admirer, "E."

Sulzbach, M.
n.d. ALS, 3p. Box 2
Thesosophy
1905 3 items Box 2

Includes AMs, Phénomênes de régressions de la mémorie and ALsS from D. A. Corumes (Mar. 25, 1905) and C. Remise (May 23, 1905)

Thomassins, Gen.
1892 Nov. 20 ALS, 1p. Box 2
Tissot, James
1895 Oct. 28 ALS, 2p. Box 2
La Tribute Psychique no. 113 (1906)
1906 Sept. Mag., 8p. Box 2

With article on seances with medium M. Miller.

La Tribute Psychique no. 116 (1906)
1906 Dec. Mag., 8p. Box 2

More on medium Miller.

Ulmès, J. d'
1907 Feb. 15 ALS, 4p. Box 2

Mention of Lina, "l'hypnotisée."

Valière, Laurent
1903 Nov. 12 ALS, 4p. Box 3
Van der Naillen, A.
1902-1906 7 ALsS Box 3

Mention of Thomassins, Bailey, Reichel, Miller; Spiritualism in California.

Van Rutten, A.
1897 June 8 ALS, 1p. Box 3
Vaud(?) G.
1889 Mar. 11 ALS, 3p. Box 3
Vaux-Royer, Rose M.
1901 June 14 ALS, 2p. Box 3

Queries on telepathy and psychic research from the Bureau of Psychic Research f the One Hundred Year Club.

Viard, G.
1904 Jan. 23 ALS, 3p. Box 3
Vicat, C.
1899 Apr. 27 ALS, 2p. Box 3
Villeneuve, M. de
1895 July 4 ALS, 3p. Box 3
Villewitz, T. de
1903 Feb. 26 ALS, 4p. Box 3
Virien, Mis de
1895-1900 2 ALsS Box 3

Compliments on Rochas' exteriorisation of sensibility.

Visani Scozzi, Paolo
1897-1898 3 ALsS Box 3

In Italian (one with translation into French). Re: Eusapia Paladino, Camille Flammarion.

Vitte, P.
1894-1896 6 ALsS Box 3
Volpi, E.
1901 Nov. 18 PC, 1p. Box 3
Waldner de Freundstein, Thuret contesse de
1902 Apr. 22-May 1 3 ALsS Box 3

Mention of Eusapia Paladino.

Wallace, Alfred Russel -- "Étude sur les apparitions" Annales des Sciences Psychiques
n.d. Pr. Ms., 30p. Box 3
Watraszewski, Xavier de
1898 Sept. 18 ALS, 4p. Box 3

Eusapia Paladino.

Wendelstadt, Albertine, baronne de
1900 5 items Box 3
Willenewitz, M.
n.d. ALS, 2p. Box 2
Wiszniewski
1898 Mar. 14-1900 July 25 2 ALsS Box 3

Seances with Mme Corner, reference to William Crookes and Kaite King.

Witte, Gen.
1898 Sept. 21 ALS, 3p. Box 3
Wladimiroff, Cécile de
1908 June 23 ALS, 3p. Box 3
Wrchovsky, Guillaume
1907 Apr. 14 ALS, 3p. Box 3

Hypnotism and regression; Indians.

Wulff, Gen.
1889 Dec. 29 ALS, 2p. Box 3
Yve-Plessis, R.
1899 Dec. 23-26 3 items Box 3
Miscellaneous
n.d. 11 items Box 3
Miscellaneous: calling cards and invitations
n.d. 13 items Box 3
Illegible and unidentified
1862 May 2-1910 Jan. 27 17 items Box 3
Series II. Photographs
1873-1921 0.5 lin. feet Box 3

Rochas evidently placed a great importance on photography as a means of documenting elusive spiritual and psychic phenomena, and the Rochas Papers includes 69 photographs depicting spirits, psychic forces, séances, mediums, and "sensitives" taken between ca.1875 and 1900. Spirit photographs seem to have been of particular interest, and his papers include two interesting images taken by the famed (and debunked) Parisian Eugène Buguet, two prints of the spirit Bien Boa (a "Brahmin" materialized by the medium Marthe Béraud), and several other images, the most intriguing of which was taken in Elizabeth, N.J., of Elena de Obarrio, in which her guardian spirit and the spirit of her sleeping (and very much alive) brother also appear. This image was taken by, or with the assistance of the Cuban medium J. R. Simoni. Rochas also kept photographs of a séance conducted by Guy de Fontenay with Eusapia Paladino at Montfor l'Amaury, July 1897, including two cabinet cards of a séance in progress and a psychically-produced image of Paladino's face.

Less common are a suite of photographs that demonstrate the reality of psychic forces. A fine carte de visite of Gustave Flaschoen taken by the British photographer Brittlebank displays the "force psychique sortant de ses mains," while three cartes provide a dramatic illustration of psychic force being generated by a circle held by the medium John Beattie in Bristol, England. The photographs Rochas collected of "sensitives" reflect his interests in the physical effects of art and music and his interest in the experience of religious or spiritual ecstasy.

Other images document psychic forces in less concrete ways. The collection includes a series of 11 images associated with the Romanian psychic investigator Bogdan Hasdeu-Istrati (see also his correspondence), 11 "doubles" of Mme. Lambert, sent to Rochas by the editor G. Delanne, and the image by Mme de Valpinson are generally difficult to interpret visually, while in those of Paolo Visani Scozzi (apparently mounted for public display) one can see dim faces arising from amorphous psychic clouds. Rochas was also not coincidentally interested in x-radiography, acquiring a very early (March 1897) x-radiograph of a hand, apparently kept as demonstration that photography could reveal structures otherwise hidden to the eye. Equally interesting are several images taken by the photographer Nadar, including five boudoir cards of Rochas himself with an astral body "obtenu par trucage."

Beattie, John.
"Photo obtenu par Mr. J. Beattie, en 1872, à Bristol Reçu de lui en Oct. 1873. A. Aksakof"
1873 Oct. 4 cartes de visite Box 3

Depicting spirit circle with psychic force emanating from hands. Also includes halftone reproduction of three of the images.

Séance with John Beattie, medium.
1872 1 item

Abstract: Four men sitting around table, "psychic force" visible in center of group and at top of photograph.

This item has been digitized:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/fedora/repository/graphics:3848

Béraud, Marthe.
Spirit Bien Boa
1905 2 silver prints Box 3

Photos taken of spirit on Indian Brahmin materialized by medium Eva C. (Marthe Béraud) before investigator Charles Richet.

Spirit of Bien Boa appearing to medium Marthe Beraud.
ca. 1890 1.0 Photograph(s)

Abstract: View of figure with hood and loose clothes.

This item has been digitized:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/fedora/repository/graphics:3853

Blois.
Extase religieuse par la premon de front
n.d. Cab. card Box 3
Brittlebank, A..
Dr. Flaschoen, "force psychique sortant de ses mains."
1875 Carte de visite Box 3

Abstract: Full length view of Dr. Flaschoen sitting at desk, "psychic force" coming from his hands.

Possibly the artist Gustave Flaschoen?

This item has been digitized:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/fedora/repository/graphics:3844

Buguet, Edouard-Isidore, 1840-.
Female spirit
1875 Carte de visite Box 3
Female Spirit
1875 1.0 Item(s)

Abstract: Full length view of transparent figure of female in robes beside table.

This item has been digitized:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/fedora/repository/graphics:3849

Buguet, Edouard-Isidore, 1840-.
Dr. Puch et Mme Puch
1875 Carte de visite Box 3
Dr. Puch et Mme Puch
1875 1.0 Item(s)

Abstract: Full length view of man seated, with spirit in death pose behind him.

This item has been digitized:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/fedora/repository/graphics:3846

Castellani, Federico.
Photographe spirite du capitaine Volpi
n.d. Cabinet card Box 3

Volpi with female spirit.

Chowasky, Gen.
n.d. Silver print Box 3
"Doubles" Photos sent by Delanne, taken of Mme. Lambert
1906 11 prints Box 3
Ecstatic
n.d. 2 cartes, 2 enlargements Box 3
"Études photo magnétique d'hypnose"
n.d. 2 mounted albumens Box 3

One depicts Rochas and female hypnotic subject, the other a woman (hypnotized?) painting at an easel.

Fakir
n.d. Printing out print Box 3
Hasdeu-Istrati, Bogdan Petriceicu, 1837-1907.
Psychic photographs
1893 11 printing out prints Box 3

Most enclosed in letter of 1895 Aug. 12

Karren, Mme. Musique. "Portrait de sensitif"
n.d. Boudoir card Box 3
Lina (photographs of 1. castle and 2. group of six persons in boat)
n.d. 2 mounted albumen prints Box 3
Nadar.
"Corps astral obtenu par trucage"
1893 5 boudoir cards Box 3
Nadar astral portrait of Eugene Rochas, sitting.
ca. 1890 1.0 Photograph(s)

Abstract: Eugene Rochas seated, with "psychic force" surrounding him.

This item has been digitized:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/fedora/repository/graphics:3847

Nadar astral portrait of Eugene Rochas, standing.
ca. 1890 1.0 Photograph(s)

Abstract: Full length view of man standing next to chair, "psychic force" surrounding him.

This item has been digitized:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/fedora/repository/graphics:3845

Nadar.
"Photographie du corps fluidique de Mme Lambert (deux fantomes de droites)" and "Photographie du corps astral de Mme. Lambert"
1893 June 3 2 boudoir cards Box 3
Obarrio, Elena de. Mlle Elena de Obarrio incarnée. Spirite 1o son Gardien (à gauche) 2o son jeune frère (à droite, celui-ci dormait à cet instant dans sa maison située à 300 pas de la fotografie. Elizabet, New Jersey"
1875 Nov. Carte de visite Box 3

Medium J. R. Simoni of Cuba.

Paladino, Eusapia
1897 July 27 3 prints Box 3

3 photos from seance with Guy de Fontenay at Montfor l'Amaury, July 1897: 2 cabinet cards of seance at table, psychic impression of face.

Picardy, Charles.
Unidentified miniatures
n.d. 2 silver prints Box 3
"Radiographie. Plaque impressionié pendant la nuit par les affleuves de l'abbé Gobart"
1894 Mounted p.o.p. Box 3
"Souvenir de baptême de l'air"
1921 Sept. 28 Silver print Box 3

French officers in front of biplane.

Spirit photograph [unidentified image of two shrouded figures
n.d. Printing out print Box 3
Valpinson, Mme de "[illeg.] obtenu par Mme de Valpinson. Je ne sais comment. Avec des plaques du Dr. Egbert Müller, Berlin..."
n.d. Boudoir card Box 3
Varenik and Vladimirov.
Grn. Mickhail Efremovich Adamovich
n.d. Carte de visite Box 3
Virien, Mis de.
X-radiograph of hand
1897 Nov. Silver print Box 3
Visani-Scozzi, Paolo. Psychic photos from seances with comtesse Mainardi and Ugo Donati
1898 Sept. 8-10 6 prints Box 3

Mounted in pairs with description.