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Abstract

The physicist W.F.G. Swann was a pioneer in high energy physics and the study of cosmic rays. Climbing the academic ranks from the University of Sheffield to the Universities of Minnesota, Chicago, and Yale, Swann was selected as the first director of the Bartol Research Foundation of the Franklin Institute in 1927, and remained there until his retirement in 1959. An able administrator and excellent mentor, he was best known for his popular work on the new physics, The Architecture of the Universe (1934) and for his research on cosmic rays. Avocationally, he was an accomplished cellist and in addition to performing, he helped organize and support the Swarthmore Symphony Orchestra and other local groups. He died at his home in Swarthmore in 1962.

The Swann Papers consist of 41 linear feet of correspondence, class notes, lectures, and photographs documenting Swann's career at the Bartol Research Foundation from 1927 until the end of his life. The collection is wide ranging, touching on atmospheric electricity, particle acceleration, atomic bomb defense, atomic energy, electrets, electrodynamics, magnetism, music, quantum theory, radiation, relativity and Einstein, science and civilization, stratospheric flights (by balloon and airplane), thermodynamics, psychic science, and wave mechanics. It is particularly rich for study of the history of cosmic ray research and the Bartol Institute, and for study of the popularization of modern physical sciences.

Background note

A pioneer in particle physics and the study of cosmic rays, W. F. G. Swann was the first Director of the Bartol Research Foundation of the Franklin Institute. From its inception in 1927, Swann guided the Foundation for over thirty years, developing it into a major center for research in the physical sciences.

Born at Ironbridge, England on August 29, 1884, Swann demonstrated an early aptitude for music, but little in the sciences. While his love for music continued to grow, however, Swann nevertheless elected to pursue what seemed to be a more practical course in medicine when he entered Brighton Technical College as a scholarship student in 1900. At Brighton, Swann was introduced to James Clerk Maxwell's treatise on electricity and magnetism, and swayed by its elegance and precision, he switched from medicine to physics, transferring to the Royal College of Science, from which he received his BSc in 1905.

As a Junior Demonstrator at the Royal College, Swann gained valuable teaching experience while strengthening his background in the "practical things of science" by studying electrical engineering. His combination of experimental and teaching prowess earned him an appointment as Assistant Lecturer and demonstrator at the University of Sheffield in 1907, where he worked while completing his doctoral studies at the University College London. He received his DSc in 1910. It was the first stop in an upward climb into increasingly prestigious academic appointments.

Despite low pay and less than ideal working conditions, Swann displayed sufficient promise in mathematical physics, electrodynamics, and in the new quantum theory that he garnered the attention of the Carnegie Institution of Washington. Lured away from Sheffield in 1913, Swann was appointed Chief of the Physical Division at the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, spending much of the next four years in the design and production of an apparatus to assist in magnetic and atmospheric-electric observations aboard the ship Carnegie, but with his reputation rising, other offers were not long in coming.

After war-time service working on submarine detection with the National Bureau of Standards and with the army to determine why their balloons were prone to explosion, Swann accepted a standing offer to join the faculty at the University of Minnesota. An administrative prodigy, Swann developed the graduate program with such remarkable success, reaping the rewards along the way, that by the time he left in 1923, he had become the highest paid professor at the University. Two of his own students won National Research Council Fellowships, but in his own opinion, his greatest success was in mentoring a young Edwin O. Lawrence.

The next stop in Swann's academic climb was the University of Chicago, who in 1923 offered Swann a substantial increase in pay to replace Robert Millikan. Even before he accepted, however, Yale approached him with even more lucrative honor: full professorship, Director of the supremely well-equipped Sloane Laboratory, and responsibilities for only one postgraduate course. As Yale was courting, other offers poured in, including the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia, who struck up what Swann called a "fliratation" in connection with a proposed research institute for "practical Electrical Engineering." Funded by a bequest from Henry W. Bartol (d. 1918), a prominent industrialist and member of the Franklin Institute, the institute got off the ground in 1925, when Arthur Bramley became the first Bartol fellow even before a facility or staff were available.

Faced with a Hobson's choice of Chicago, Yale, or the prospective Bartol, Swann chose Yale. The Ryerson Lab at Chicago, he reasoned, was crowded and antiquated, and the research opportunities at Yale offered by Pres. James B. Angell were simply too attractive to turn down. After only one year at Chicago, and despite his department's pleas, Swann therefore moved to New Haven, bringing Lawrence in tow. As the Bartol got off the ground, however, Swann soon reconsidered, and when the number of fellows rose to five, he was tapped as the first Director of the Bartol Research Foundation.

One of Swann's first acts as Director was to secure an agreement with Swarthmore College to relocate the institute from its temporary quarters in Philadelphia to facilities on the college campus. Always meticulous and detail-oriented, his administrative oversight extended even to minor custodial expenditures, yet he was well regarded by the fellows and staff he oversaw, however his attentions appear to have been well appreciated by Bartol fellows. Swann was concerned that "the great industrial rese'rch laboratories" instilled a culture that led physicists away from "using their own hands," and he therefore insisted on manufacturing his own apparatus, including blowing his own glass, and he was adamant that his fellows follow suit. On a personal level, several fellows considered Swann to be something of a "father confessor" as well as scientist.

An immensely productive researcher, who wrote over 250 publications during his career, Swann continued to blend theoretical and empirical approaches, evolving as rapidly as his discipline to touch on relativity theory, condensed matter physics, atomic structure, matter, antimatter, and gravitation. He was best known, however, for his pioneering work on cosmic rays and high energy physics. In the late 1920s and early 1930s, he developed a mechanism for accelerating charged particles to cosmic ray energies by means of changing magnetic fields, a device he named the cygnatron ("swan tube"). More in the public eye, he took part in organizing a number of high profile projects to investigate cosmic ray intensities at high altitudes, including a series of manned balloon flights funded by the National Geographic Society and the U.S. Army. Swann subsequently took these studies to airplanes, ships, underwater, and on mountain tops. Late in his career, Swann developed a keep interest in the relationship between religion and science and in psychic research.

As charismatic in presentation as he was dramatic, Swann was a natural teacher and effective public spokesman for science at various levels. Throughout his tenure at the Bartol, he conducted seminars for high school students at the Franklin Institute, he lectured on electrodynamics at the Moore School of Electrical Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania, and later in life, was Professor of Physics at Temple University. His 1934 book The Architecture of the Universe, its interpretation of the new, and often abstruse developments in modern physics, was a major success with the broader public, and as a result, Swann was regularly called upon to appear on the radio and interviewed in the newspaper. With a slightly eccentric image and trademark shock of long white hair, he was a natural as well for television, hosting a weekly program in Philadelphia popularizing science during the 1950s.

Despite the demands of a rigorous schedule of research, administration, and public appearances, Swann managed to preserve time and energy for his great passion, music. An accomplished cellist who had studied under Diran Alexanian, Swann maintained an active social and musical correspondence with musicians and kept an active hand in the music scene in Philadelphia. In addition to his performing as a soloist and with various orchestras, he helped found the Swarthmore Symphony Orchestra, worked as assistant conductor of the Main Line Orchestra and as director of the Philadelphia Academy of Music, and was a supporter and honorary fellow of Trinity College of Music, London. Music entered deeply into his private life as well: After his first wife, Frances Mabel Thompson died in 1954, he married Helene Diedrichs, a former child prodigy, pianist and Chair of the Piano Department at the Philadelphia Musical Academy. Mrs. Swann (who played professionally under her maiden name) had studied under Carl Wendling at the Leipzig Conservatory of Music and received degrees from the Royal Academy of Music and the Tobais Matthay Pianoforte School.

Swann was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 1926, and served as vice president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (1923-1924) and president of the American Physical Society (1931-1933). He received honorary degrees from Yale (1924), Swarthmore (1929), Temple (1954), and was made a fellow of the Imperial College of Science in Technology (1956) and was awarded the Elliot Cresson Medal of the Franklin Institute (1960) for his research on cosmic rays. The final honor awarded Swann vaulted him literally to the heavens: In 1967, the International Astronomical Union named a lunar crater in Swann's honor.

In August 1959, already 75 years old, Swann retired to emeritus status at the Bartol Institute and was succeeded by Martin Pomerantz. Unburdened by administrative duties, he continued to conduct research almost until the day he died, January 29, 1962. He was survived by Helene Diedrichs, two sons, William F. Swann and Charles P. Swann, and a daughter Sylvia Swann Briggs. Both sons became prominent physical scientists, Charles at the Bartol.

Scope and content

The William Francis Gray Swann Papers document a long career in the physical sciences, with an emphasis upon Swann's professional interests in cosmic ray research, his administrative work at the Bartol Institute, and his avocational love of music. Although the collection begins with materials that n date from Swann's undergraduate days at Brighton Technical College in 1903, the collection is fullest for the period after his arrival as Director of the Bartol in 1927.

Swann's varied and shifting interests Civil defense in Philadelphia with a number of fascinating items regarding the potential impact of a nuclear bomb on the city, plans for evacuation, etc., 1950 and 1952.

Series I. Correspondence1907-1961 24 linear feet
Series II. Works by Swann 1900-1961 15.5 linear feet
Series III. Architecture of the Universe 1933-1935 1 linear feet
Series IV. Bound Volumes 1903-1961 17 linear feet
Series V. Images and Certificates 1902-1957 3.5 linear feet
Series VI. Motion Picture Films 1934, undated 0.5 linear foot
Series VII. Oversize Undated 0.5 linear feet

Arrangement

Arrangement is for the Reader Copies.

Collection information

Provenance

Bequest of William Francis Gray Swann, 1962.

Preferred citation

Cite as: William Francis Gray Swann Papers, American Philosophical Society.

Processing information

Recatalogued by rsc, 2002.

Separated material

A cosmic ray detecting device owned by Swann has been entered into the APS Cabinet of Curiosities.

A number of pamphlets acquired with the Swann Papers are catalogued in the Book Department. Call no.: BIOSw1xno.1-122

Bibliography

The Book Department includes a number of works by Swann, including:

Indexing Terms

Corporate Name(s)

  • American Association for the Advancement of Science.
  • American Institute of Electrical Engineers
  • American Physical Society.
  • Bartol Research Foundation
  • National Geographic Society
  • National Research Council (U.S.)
  • Princeton University.
  • Swarthmore College
  • Temple University. Department of Physics
  • Trinity College of Music
  • United States. Army. Air Corps..
  • United States. Navy.
  • University of Pennsylvania. Moore School of Electrical Engineering

Genre(s)

  • Laboratory notes
  • Motion pictures
  • Photographs
  • Sound recordings
  • Students' notes

Personal Name(s)

  • Alexanian, Diran, 1881-1954
  • Bainbridge, Kenneth T.
  • Bauer, L. A. (Louis Agricola), 1865-1932
  • Beams, Jesse W., (Jesse Wakefield), 1898-1977
  • Briggs, Lyman J. , (Lyman James), 1874-1963
  • Casals, Pablo, 1876-1973
  • Cattell, Jacques, 1904-1960
  • Cattell, James McKeen, 1860-1944
  • Chatterjee, S. D.
  • Clamer, G. H.
  • Clevenger, S. J.
  • Compton, Arthur Holly, 1892-1962
  • Compton, K. T., (Karl Taylor), 1887-1954
  • Danforth, William E.
  • Darrow, Karl K., (Karl Kelchner), 1891-1982
  • Ehrenhaft, Felix, 1879-
  • Einstein, Albert, 1879-1955
  • Eisenberg, Maurice
  • Eisenhart, Luther Pfahler, 1876-
  • Erikson, Henry A. (Henry Anton), 1869-
  • Federer, Charles Anthony, 1909-
  • Frazer, John A.
  • Gibbs, J. Willard, (Josiah Willard), 1839-1903
  • Hess, Victor Francis, 1883-
  • Hudspeth, Emmett L
  • Jackson, William F.
  • Johnson, Thomas H.
  • Kelly, Mary Isabel
  • Korff, Serge Alexander, 1906-
  • Lark-Horovitz, K., (Karl), 1892-1958
  • Liddell, Urner
  • McDonald, Ellice, 1876-
  • McGiffert, James
  • Payne, Melvin M.
  • Pepinsky, Abe
  • Pfeiffer, Robert Charles
  • Piccard, Jean
  • Polnauer, Frederick F.
  • Shapley, Harlow, 1885-1972
  • Stromberg, Gustaf, 1882-
  • Swann, William F.
  • Swann, William Francis Gray, 1884-1962
  • Tate, John Torrence, 1889-1950
  • Tutwiler, Carrington C.
  • Zanstra, H. (Herman)

Subject(s)

  • Atomic bomb
  • Civil defense--Pennsylvania--Philadelphia
  • Cosmic rays.
  • Electrodynamics
  • Electromagnetic theory
  • Magnetic fields
  • Music
  • Nuclear physics.
  • Particles (Nuclear physics)
  • Physics--Study and teaching
  • Quantum theory.
  • Relativity (Physics)
  • Thermodynamics
  • Violoncello
  • World War, 1914-1918
Collection overview
1907-1961 24.0 Linear feet Box 1-48

Swann's correspondence is an extensive collection offering thorough documentation of Swann's career after his move to the Bartol Institute in the later 1920s, with some valuable earlier correspondence. The collection is particularly rich in documenting the early years of cosmic ray research in which Swann figured prominently, including the efforts to measure atmospheric intensities of cosmic rays from balloons and airplanes. Swann's administration of the Bartol Institute is also well documented.

Throughout his life, Swann was an avid musician and an accomplished cellist. His correspondence includes interesting exchanges with Diran Alexanian, Pablo Casals, and numerous other musicians, but also with writers and poets and other "artistic" souls. Swann's correspondence also contains information onhis involvement with the Swarthmore Symphony Orchestra and other performing groups.

As a public figure from the mid-1930s onward, Swann attracted a great deal of correspondence from non-specialists, people who had heard him on the radio or television, who had seen him lecture at the Franklin Institute, or who had read his popular or semi-popular works. In many cases, these provide insight into the efforts of ordinary Americans to understand the new physics.

1900-1961 15.5 Linear feet Box 49-79
1933-1935 1.0 Linear feet Box 80-81

Typescript copy of Swann's Architecture of the Universe, along with related correspondence, early drafts, notes and reviews.

1903-1961 17.0 Linear feet Box 82-115

Among the few notebooks that are clearly identified, most appear to contain notes taken by Swann as a student at the Royal College of Science at Brighton. Eight volumes contain laboratory notes kept at the Physical Laboratory, University of Sheffield.

The series also includes four scrapbooks kept by Swann throughout his career that include newspaper clippings, lecture notices and ephemera relating to his work. One scrapbook is devoted exclusively to his musical interests.

Includes card file index to notes and lectures.

1902-1957 3.5 Linear feet Box 116-122

Photographs, Lantern Slides, glass transparencies, membership certificates, diplomas, blueprints. In addition to the photographs housed within the Swann Papers, 421 Swann photographs are located in the APS Photograph Collection.

1934, undated 0.5 Linear feet 22 film reels Box 123

Twenty-two 16mm films, transferred to DVD as part of the Save America's Treasures grant in December 2006. Films Nos. 16 and 18 could not be transferred due to damage.

Undated 0.5 Linear feet Box 124


Detailed Inventory
Series I. Correspondence
1907-1961 24.0 Linear feet Box 1-48

Swann's correspondence is an extensive collection offering thorough documentation of Swann's career after his move to the Bartol Institute in the later 1920s, with some valuable earlier correspondence. The collection is particularly rich in documenting the early years of cosmic ray research in which Swann figured prominently, including the efforts to measure atmospheric intensities of cosmic rays from balloons and airplanes. Swann's administration of the Bartol Institute is also well documented.

Throughout his life, Swann was an avid musician and an accomplished cellist. His correspondence includes interesting exchanges with Diran Alexanian, Pablo Casals, and numerous other musicians, but also with writers and poets and other "artistic" souls. Swann's correspondence also contains information onhis involvement with the Swarthmore Symphony Orchestra and other performing groups.

As a public figure from the mid-1930s onward, Swann attracted a great deal of correspondence from non-specialists, people who had heard him on the radio or television, who had seen him lecture at the Franklin Institute, or who had read his popular or semi-popular works. In many cases, these provide insight into the efforts of ordinary Americans to understand the new physics.

Aaronson, Milton H.
1961 4 items Box 1
Abbot, C.G.
1916-1941 9 items Box 1
Abbott, Emma M.
1931 1 item Box 1
Adams, Marie B.
1947 1 item Box 1
Adelman, Adrien
1939-1940 15 items Box 1
Agnew, P.G.
1918-1947 10 items Box 1
Aiura, Masanobu
1958 3 items Box 1
Ajax Electrothermic Corporation
1925 1 item Box 1
Akeley, Lewis E.
1946-1947 4 items Box 1
Akimoff, N.W. (Nicholas Wladimir)
1920-1924 23 items Box 1

Re: automobile engine without reverberation

Albagli, Reina
1934 1 item Box 1
Albrecht, Otto E.
1940 2 items Box 1
Albright, Russell K.
1956 3 items Box 1
Alexander, D.F.
1936 2 items Box 1
Alexander, Eleanor R.
1957 3 items Box 1
Alexander, Jerome
1949 3 items Box 1
Alexanian, Diran
1929-1943 8 folders Box 1
Folder 1
1929-1931 3 items Box 1
Folders 2-6
1937 Box 1
Folder 7
1938 22 items Box 1
Folder 8
1940-1943 Box 1
Alflfvén, H. (Hannes)
1948 2 items Box 1
Alleman, Gellert
1924-1925 5 items Box 1
Allen, Henry B.
1935-1958 9 folders Box 1
Folder 1
1935-1939 Box 1
Folder 2
1940-1942 Box 1
Folder 3
1943-1944 Box 1
Folder 4
1945-1946 Box 1
Folder 5
1947 Box 1
Folder 6
1948-1949 Box 1
Folder 7
1950-1951 Box 1
Folder 8
1952-1953 Box 1
Folder 9
1954-1958 Box 1
Allen, J. L.
1959 1 item Box 1
Allen, Mildred
1929-1940 5 folders Box 2
Folder 1
1929 Box 2
Folder 2
1930-1931 Box 2
Folder 3
1932 Box 2
Folder 4
1932 Box 2
Folder 5
1933-1940 Box 2
Allen, P., Jr.
1951 5 items Box 2
Allibone, T.E.
1948-1959 19 items Box 2
Allyn, Alice
1932 11 items Box 2
Almanzan, Ascension
1935 3 items Box 2
Altinger, T.O.
1924 1 item Box 2
American Academy of Political Science
1959 2 items Box 2
American Association for Adult Education
1934 2 items Box 2
American Association for the Advancement of Science
1929-1936 2 folders Box 2
Folder 1
1929-1932 Box 2
Folder 2
1933-1936 Box 2
American Council on Education
1925 1 item Box 2
American Geographical Society
1942 3 items Box 2
American Geophysical Union
1929-1931 8 items Box 
American Institute
1928-1935 13 items Box 2

Includes talk by Swann, "The Atomic World," 1935

American Institute of Electrical Engineers
1927-1931 2 folders Box 2
Folder 1
1927-1929 Box 2
Folder 2
1930-1931 Box 2
American Institute of Physics
1939-1941 3 items Box 2
American Mathematical Society
1931-1946 25 items Box 2
American Philosophical Society
1926-1956 19 folders Box 2-3
Folder 1
1926 Box 2
Folder 2
1927 Box 2
Folder 3
1928 Box 2
Folder 4
1929 Box 2
Folder 5
1930 Box 2
Folder 6
1931 Box 2
Folder 7
1932 Box 2
Folder 8
1933 Box 2
Folder 9
1934 Box 2
Folder 10
1935 Box 2
Folder 11
1936 Box 2
Folder 12
1937 Box 2
Folder 13
1938 Box 3
Folder 14
1939 Box 3
Folder 15
1940 Box 3
Folder 16
1945 Box 3
Folder 17
1956 Box 3
Folders 18-19
Undated Box 3
American Physical Society
1928-1935 11 folders Box 3-4
Folder 1
1928-1929 Box 3
Folder 2
1930 Box 3
Folder 3
1931 January-March Box 3
Folder 4
1931 April-June Box 3
Folder 5
1931 July-October Box 3
Folder 6
1931 November-December Box 3
Folder 7
1932 January-March Box 4
Folder 8
1932 April-June Box 4
Folder 9
1932 June-December Box 4
Folder 10
1933 Box 4
Folder 11
1934-1935 Box 4
American Society of Ancient Instruments
1937 4 items Box 4
Ames, Joseph S.
1920-1926 4 folders Box 4
Folder 1
1920 Box 4
Folder 2
1921 Box 4
Folder 3
1922-1923 Box 4
Folder 4
1924-1926 Box 4
Amsterdam, Michael
1948-1950 9 items Box 4
Anderson, Arvid E.
1938-1942 8 items Box 4
Anderson, Carl D.
1937-1954 19 items Box 4
Anderson, Orvil
1947 1 item Box 4
Anderson, Robert B.
1953 1 item Box 4
Anderson, Samuel E.
1947 2 items Box 4
Andreeva, Tamara
1946 4 items Box 4
Andrews, Donald H.
1926-1955 7 items Box 4
Angell, James R.
1924-1949 30 items Box 4
Anton, David
1937-1943 9 items Box 4
Appelton, Edward V.
1927-1956 9 items Box 4
Applications for Positions
1925-1934 3 folders Box 4-5
Folder 1
1925-1930 Box 4
Folder 2
1931 Box 5
Folder 3
1932-1934 Box 5
Archera, Laura
1937 1 item Box 5
Arctowski, Henry
1943 6 items Box 5
Arms, William T.
1939 2 items Box 5
Arnold, H.D.
1917 11 items Box 5
Arnhym, A.A., Col.
1947-1949 7 items Box 5
Arowan, E.
1951 1 item Box 5
Ashley, Rose Bishop
1937 3 items Box 5
Astin, Allen V.
1928-1932 14 items Box 5
Avera, F. L.
1934 2 items Box 5
Axt, Richard G.
1955 2 items Box 5
Aydelotte, Frank
1939-1953 10 items Box 5
Ayling, S. Virginia
1944-1945 12 items Box 5
Bainbridge, Kenneth T.
1929-1935 7 folders Box 5
Folder 1
1929-1930 Box 5
Folder 2
1931 Box 5
Folder 3
1932 Box 5
Folder 4
1933 January-June Box 5
Folder 5
1933 July-December Box 5
Folder 6
1934 Box 5
Folder 7
1935-1939 Box 5
Baisley, H.K.
1936 13 items Box 5
Baker, R.N. Scott
1949 2 items Box 5
Baldwin School (Bryn Mawr, PA)
1938 8 items Box 6

re: Sylvia Swann

Bales, E.R.
1930 3 items Box 5
Bantock, Granville
1936-1940 19 items Box 5
Barail, Louis C.
1939 12 items Box 5
Barba, William
1932 2 items Box 5
Barfield, A.R.
1938 4 items Box 5
Barnard, Chester I.
1938 6 items Box 5
Barnes, George
1932-1934 2 items Box 5
Barnes, James
1944-1954 21 items Box 5
Barnes, William J.
1933 1 item Box 5
Barr, Jean B.
1939 4 items Box 5
Barrett, W.J.
1940 2 items Box 5
Barry, James W.
1936 1 item Box 5
Bartlett, Percy
1940 2 items Box 5
Bartol, Eleanor G.
1938-1940 4 items Box 5
Bartol, Grier
1944-1951 4 items Box 5
Bartol Foundation-Fence
1954 12 items Box 5
Barton, Henry A.
1927-1945 5 items Box 5
Barton, William H.
1938-1939 7 items Box 5
Bashew, Amelia
1933 2 items Box 5
Bass, Robert E.
1953-1961 3 items Box 5
Bateman, Ethel
1939 2 items Box 5
Bateman, Harry
1918-1940 7 items Box 5
Bauer, Louis A.
1912-1921 9 folders Box 6
Folder 1
1912-1913 Box 6
Folder 2
1914 January-June Box 6
Folder 3
1914 July-December Box 6
Folder 4
1915 January-June Box 6
Folder 5
1915 July-December Box 6
Folder 6
1916 Box 6
Folder 7
1916 January-June Box 6
Folder 8
1916 July-December Box 6
Folder 9
1919-1921 Box 6
Bautista, Gonzalo
1943 5 items Box 6
Beals, Ralph A.
1938 10 items Box 6
Beach, C. L.
1932-1933 4 items Box 6
Beams, Jesse W.
1943-1961 5 folders Box 6
Folder 1
1928 3 items Box 6
Folder 2
1943-1953 16 items Box 6
Folder 3
1954-1956 14 items Box 6
Folder 4
1958-1959 10 items Box 6
Folder 5
1960-1961 12 items Box 6
Bearden, J.A.
1935 1 item Box 6
Beck, Clifford K.
1951 2 items Box 6
Beck, Henry, Jr.
1956-1958 2 items Box 6
Becker, D.M.
1934 1 item Box 6
Beier, L.C.
1938 1 item Box 6
Belmont, Georges
Undated 1 item Box 6
Bender, William
1931 2 items Box 6
Bengelsdorf, Irving S.
1958 1 item Box 6
Benham, T.A.
1956 1 item Box 6
Benjamin, Robert M.
1938 2 items Box 6
Bennett, R.
1957 3 items Box 6
Bennett, Samuel R.
1909 1 item Box 6
Bennett, Willard H.
1929-1930 3 items Box 6

Includes TLS from A. Robert Millikan

Bensinger, George C.
1940-1942 3 items Box 6
Benton, W.E.
1925 1 item Box 6
Berkey, Charles P.
1937 2 items Box 6
Berkley, Harold
1938-1941 5 items Box 6
Berko, Stephen
1950 3 items Box 6
Bernays, Edward L.
1953-1955 7 items Box 7
Bernstein, Herbert J.
1937 1 item Box 7
Bethe, Hans A.
1937-1955 5 items Box 7
Bevan, Arthur
1939 1 item Box 7
Biester, Dorothy
1935 2 items Box 7
Bilger, Leonora Neuffer
1938 3 items Box 7
Birkhoff, George D.
1936-1943 7 items Box 7
Bishop, D.W.
1944 3 items Box 7
Bitter, Francis
1936-1939 6 items Box 7
Bittinger, Charles
1934-1941 32 items Box 7
Blackburn, Harmon L.
1942 3 items Box 7
Blackburn, Charles M.
1925 1 items Box 7
Blackett, P.M.S.
1940 2 items Box 7
Blackett, Patrick
1956 1 item Box 7
Blair, William B.
1921 1 item Box 7
Blanchard, Frances
1937 3 items Box 7
Blanchard, Duncan
1961 1 item Box 7
Blau, Adi
1933 4 items Box 7
Blaxland, M.
1956, 1961 2 items Box 7
Bleick, Willard E.
1929 2 items Box 7
Bliss, Gilbert Ames
1922-1937 8 items Box 7
Bliven, Bruce
1940 2 items Box 7
Block, I. Edward
1952 1 item Box 7
Blodgett, Alice E.
1941-1942 7 items Box 7
Bloom, Julius
1943-1956 9 items Box 7
Bludworth, T. Franklin
1944-1955 22 items Box 7
Boggs, S. Whittemore
1940 2 items Box 7
Bohr, Aage
1957 1 item Box 7
Bohr, Niels
1934 1 item Box 7
Bok, Bart J.
1941 2 items Box 7
Bok, Mrs. Curtis
1936 1 item Box 7
Bok, Mary
1939-1940 7 items Box 7
Bolster, C.M.
1949-1952 4 items Box 7
Bond, Kirk
1953-1954 7 items Box 7
Bond, R.T.
1937 2 items Box 7
Bongards, H.
1923 2 items Box 7
Bonner, T.W.
1940-1957 2 items Box 7
Boocock, C.B.
1937 3 items Box 7
Boott Mills
1921 1 item Box 7
Borie, Edith
Undated 1 item Box 7
Born, Max
1937-1938 2 items Box 7
Bostelmam, John C, Jr.
1935-1939 32 items Box 7
Bouvet, Rene
1941-1942 4 items Box 7
Bouvier, Julian J.
1940 1 item Box 7
Bowker, R.C.
1944 5 items Box 7
Bowles, Gordon T.
1951 2 items Box 7
Boyajian, A.
1936 7 items Box 7
Boyd, George A.
1938-1941 5 items Box 7
Bracking, Ivy A.
1940 1 item Box 7
Bradbury, N.
1946 1 item Box 7
Bradshaw, Hamilton
1937-1939 7 items Box 7
Bradt, Helmut L.
1947 5 items Box 7
Bragg, Lawrence
1954 2 items Box 7
Bragg, William
1940 2 items Box 7
Brakeley, George A.
1937 1 item Box 7
Bramhall, Ervin Hicks
1933 1 item Box 7
Bramley, Arthur
1934 2 items Box 7
Brammer, Douglas
1957 1 item Box 7
Bransfield, J.W.
1955 1 item Box 7
Brasefield, Charles J.
1955 1 item Box 7
Breisky, John V.
1938 7 items Box 7
Breit, Gregory
1924-1958 19 item Box 7
Brennan, Herbert
1925 2 items Box 7
Brentano, J.C.M.
1942 2 items Box 7
Brice, C. Frederick
1938-1942 6 items Box 7
Bridgman, P.W.
1923 2 items Box 7
Briggs, H.B.
1929 3 items Box 7
Briggs, Lyman J.
1934-1958 5 folders Box 7
Folder 1
1934 Box 7
Folder 2
1935-1936 Box 7
Folder 3
1945-1947 Box 7
Folder 4
1948-1949 Box 7
Folder 5
1950-1958 Box 7
Briggs, Sylvia Swann
1940-1942 3 items Box 8
Brighton School of Music
1928-1934 11 items Box 8
Brinkworth, J.H.
1911 3 items Box 8
Bronk, Detlev W.
1949 2 items Box 8
Bronson, Howard L.
1928 1 item Box 8
Brookhaven National Laboratory
Undated 1 item Box 8
Brown, F.C.
1937 2 items Box 8
Brown, G.H.
1936 2 items Box 8
Brown, Louis
1953 2 items Box 8
Brown, Marshal S.
1937 9 items Box 8
Brown, Raymond Charles
1942 10 items Box 8
Broxon, James W.
1921-1934 2 folders Box 8
Folder 1
1921-1923 Box 8
Folder 2
1927-1934 Box 8
Bryn Mawr College
1939 1 item Box 8
Buchta, J.W.
1936-1955 2 folders Box 8
Folder 1
1936-1939 Box 8
Folder 2
1941-1955 Box 8
Buckingham, Edgar
1921, 1927 3 items Box 8
Bunker, John W.
1940 1 item Box 8
Burdick, C. Lalor
1936 3 items Box 8
Burgess Battery Company
1935-1936 13 items Box 8
Burkholder L.M.
1950 2 items Box 8
Burlew, John S.
1955-1959 32 items Box 8
Burns, George R.
1940 2 items Box 8
Burroughs, Robert E.
1936 2 items Box 8
Burton, Ernest D.
1924 3 items Box 8
Bush, Vannevar
1940-1942 20 items Box 8
Bye, Arthur Edwin
1929 11 items Box 8
Byrd Antarctic Expedition II
1933 3 items Box 8
C.B. Christiansen Company
1936 8 items Box 8
Cady, Walter G.
1945 12 items Box 8
Caldwell, Orestes H.
1933 2 items Box 8
Calhoun, Phil, Maj.
1949 2 items Box 8

Flying saucers and use of light for propulsion

Callaghan, Thomas A.
1947 2 items Box 8
Callendar, H.L.
1907-1924 9 items Box 8
Camacho, Manuel Avila
1943 8 items Box 8
Cambridge Instrument Company
1925 1 item Box 8
Campbell, George A.
1932-1933 9 items Box 8
Campbell, W.W.
1927 2 items Box 8
Cancer Research Fund
1929-1935 5 folders Box 8
Folder 1
1929 Box 8
Folder 2
1930-1931 Box 8
Folder 3
1932 Box 8
Folder 4
1933-1934 Box 8
Folder 5
1935 Box 8
Canfield, Jennings W.
1954 2 items Box 8
Canova, E.C.
1947 1 item Box 8
Cardoza, J.B.N.
1932 4 items Box 8
Carnegie Institution of Washington
1926-1951 40 items Box 8
Carnegie Institution of Washington. Department of Terrestrial Magnetism
1923 7 items Box 8
Carp, Louis
1955 5 items Box 9
Carpenter, Samuel
1952 1 item Box 9
Carr, Fred
1934 4 items Box 9

Re: James Jeans' view of the new physics

Carroll, C.M.
1943 1 item Box 9
Carson, Cyril T.
1961 2 items Box 9
Carter, Howard A.
1947 19 items Box 9
Carter, Robert S.
1956 2 items Box 9
Carter, W.J.
1936 2 items Box 9
Casals, Pablo
1947-1960 64 items Box 9
Cassell, Norman S.
1922 1 item Box 9
Castellini, William A.A.
1936 2 items Box 9
Caster, Kenneth E.
1952 3 items Box 9
Cattell, James McKeen
1927-1943 6 folders Box 9
Folder 1
1927, 1936 Box 9
Folder 2
1937-1939 Box 9
Folder 3
1940 Box 9
Folder 4
1941 Box 9
Folder 5
1942 Box 9
Folder 6
1943 Box 9
Cattell, Jacques
1942 3 folders Box 9
Folder 1
1942 Box 9
Folder 2
1943-1944 Box 9
Folder 3
1945 Box 9
Cattell, Ware
1939-1942 20 items Box 9
Central Scientific Company
1933 2 items Box 9
Century of Progress
1933 4 items Box 9
Chalmers, Gordon K.
1937 8 items Box 9
Chambers, Carl C.
1933-1951 4 items Box 9
Chambers, Robert, Jr.
1951 4 items Box 9
Chandrasekhar, Subrahmanyan
1955 2 items Box 9
Chapman, R.
1911 1 item Box 9
Chapman and Grimes, Publishers
1936 2 items Box 9
Charlesby, A.
1957 9 items Box 9
Charlton, William J.
1935 2 items Box 9
Chase, Harry W.
1938 3 items Box 9
Chatterjee, S.D.
1950-1958 25 items Box 9
Cheyney, E.P.
1941 3 items Box 9
Christian, L.
1925 1 item Box 9
Civil Defense
1950-1957 16 folders Box 9-10
Folder 1
1950 March-October Box 9
Folder 2
1950 November-December Box 9
Folder 3
1951 January Box 9
Folder 4
1951 February Box 10
Folder 5
1951 March Box 10
Folder 6
1951 April Box 10
Folder 7
1951 May Box 10
Folder 8
1951 June Box 10
Folder 9
1951 July Box 10
Folder 10
1951 August Box 10
Folder 11
1951 September Box 10
Folder 12
1951 October Box 10
Folder 13
1951 November Box 10
Folder 14
1951 December Box 10
Folder 15
1952 Box 10
Folder 16
1956-1957, undated Box 10
Clamer, G.H.
1945-1956 7 folders Box 10
Folder 1
1945-1946 Box 10
Folder 2
1947-1948 Box 10
Folder 3
1949 Box 10
Folder 4
1950 Box 10
Folder 5
1951-1953 Box 10
Folder 6
1954-1955 Box 10
Folder 7
1956 Box 10
Clancy, Edward P.
Undated 1 item Box 10
Clark Cooper Company
1946 1 item Box 10
Clarke, Joseph R.
1914 1 item Box 10
Clay, J.
1935-1949 8 items Box 10
Clementson, M.K.
1946 3 items Box 10
Clemons, Harry
1942 2 items Box 10
Clevenger, H.L.
1943 1 item Box 10
Clevenger, S.J., Jr.
1943-1959 6 folders Box 11
Folder 1
1943 Box 11

Franklin Institute

Folder 2
1944 Box 11
Folder 3
1945-1948 Box 11
Folder 4
1949-1951 Box 11
Folder 5
1952-1954 Box 11
Folder 6
1955-1959 Box 11
Clews, M. Madison
1949 3 items Box 11
Cline, Mary
1938 3 items Box 11
Clinger, H.
1943 1 item Box 11
Clipp, Roger W.
1954-1955 5 items Box 11
Clothier, Isaac H., Jr.
1940 1 item Box 11
Clothier, Morris L.
1939-1942 6 items Box 11
Coade, E.N.
1924 5 items Box 11
Coates, Joseph K.
1948-1956 4 items Box 11
Cobbs, Susan P.
1958 3 items Box 11
Coblentz, William Weber
1951-1955 3 items Box 11
Cockcroft, John D
1956, 1960 2 items Box 11
Coffey, W.C.
1942 2 items Box 11
Coffin, L.A.
1956 3 items Box 11
Coffin, Lewis G.
1948 2 items Box 11
Coffman, L.D.
1921-1922 9 items Box 11
Cohen, Leslie
1953 2 items Box 11
Cohen, Robert S.
1944 1 item Box 11
Cohn, Byron E.
1949-1952 12 items Box 11
Cohn, George I.
1956 2 items Box 11
Colby, M.Y.
1949 1 item Box 11
Cole, Leon Jacob
1935 1 item Box 11
Cole, Lois Dwight
1937-1941 5 items Box 11
Coleman, Warren
1935 3 items Box 11
Collie, C.N.
1957 3 items Box 11
Collins, B.R.T.
1933 2 items Box 11
Collins, George B.
1950 1 item Box 11
Collins, Margaret W.
1946 2 items Box 11
Collotype Company
1947 1 item Box 11
Colton, F. Barrows
1949-1952 3 items Box 11
Columbia Transcriptions
1950-1958 47 items Box 11
Columbia University
1921-1928 10 items Box 11

Includes letters of Edward U. Condon, Bergen Davis, Frank D. Fackentha

Columbia University Press
1943 3 items Box 11
Colvin, Amy
1944 2 items Box 11
Comar, C.L.
1930 2 items Box 11
Compton, Arthur H.
1933-1940 3 folders Box 11
Folder 1
1933-1936 Box 11
Folder 2
1937-1938 Box 11
Folder 3
1939-1940 Box 11
Compton, Karl T.
1924-1952 3 folders Box 11
Folder 1
1924-1934 Box 11
Folder 2
1937-1942 Box 11
Folder 3
1946-1952 Box 11
Conant, James B.
1940 5 items Box 11
Conant, Lloyd V.
1958 3 items Box 11
Condit, Carl W.
1953 3 items Box 11
Condon, Eugene U.
1927-1952 12 items Box 11
Conklin, Edward G.
1935-1942 3 folders Box 12

American Philosophical Society

Folder 1
1935-1937 Box 12
Folder 2
1938-1939 Box 12
Folder 3
1940-1942 Box 12
Conley, Patrick
1947 5 items Box 12
Conrad, R.F.
1948 3 items Box 12
Conrad, V.
1926 3 items Box 12
Constantinides, Ph. A
1925 2 items Box 12
Contemporary Club (Philadelphia, Pa.)
1931 2 items Box 12
Conway, Thomas F.
1946 3 items Box 12
Cooke, James Francis
1938 4 items Box 12
Cooksey, Donald
1959 3 items Box 12
Coolidge, William D.
1934 2 items Box 12
Corbett, Harriet Cumming
1954-1957 4 items Box 12
Cornell University
1928-1931 23 items Box 12

Letters Of R. C. Gibbs, Harley Howe, Vladimir Karapetoff, E. H. Kennard, V. E. Peter

Coroniti, S.C.
1951-1952 3 items Box 12
Corr, John E.
1956 2 items Box 12
Correll, Malcolm
1961 2 items Box 12
Corson, Edward M.
1948-1957 11 items Box 12
Corwin, Robert Nelson
1924 1 item Box 12
Cosinuke, Walter
1943-1946 5 items Box 12
Coulson, Thomas
1946-1953 5 items Box 12
Courtney, Pratt, J.S.
1957 9 items Box 12
Cowie, Dean
1933-1935 11 items Box 12
Cox, Richard T.
1946-1949 2 items Box 12
Crane, A.H.
1958 1 item Box 12
"Crank" Letters
1926-1938 5 folders Box 12
Crenshaw, J.L.
1933 4 items Box 12
Crew, Henry
1920-1950 26 items Box 12
Crew, William H.
1945 5 items Box 12
Crittenden, Miss
Undated 1 item Box 12
Cross, Wilbur L.
1925-1938 8 items Box 12
Culler, Vaughan
1955 2 items Box 12
Cummer, Frederick G.
1926-1936 2 folders Box 12
Folder 1
1926-1933 Box 12

Mortgage to W.F.G. and Mabel Swann

Folder 2
1934-1936 Box 12
Cummings, William
1934 1 item Box 13
Culp, Harvey W.
1953-1954 8 items Box 13
Current Research
1951 2 items Box 13
Cyclotron Specialties Corporation
1946 1 item Box 13
Czerlinski, George
1958 2 items Box 13
Dahl, G.C.
1933 1 item Box 13
Dalley, Florence Bartol
1959 4 items Box 13
Danforth, John L.
1943-1946 36 items Box 13

MIT

Danforth, William E.
1932-1959 6 folders Box 13
Folder 1
1932-1937 Box 13
Folder 2
1938-1946 Box 13
Folder 3
1947-1951 Box 13
Folder 4
1952 Box 13
Folder 5
1953-1954 Box 13
Folder 6
1955-1959 Box 13
Darby, Hugh Hackland
1932-1934 16 items Box 13
Darling, Hugo
1936 1 item Box 13
Darrow, Karl K.
1925-1959 5 folders Box 13
Folder 1
1925-1935 Box 13
Folder 2
1941-1942 Box 13
Folder 3
1943-1949 Box 13