A biochemist at Columbia University, Erwin Chargaff discovered the base-pairing regularities or "complementarity relationships" of nucleic acids that provided one of the key steps in developing a structural model for DNA. During his long career, Chargaff is credited with conclusively falsifying the tetranucleotide hypothesis; demonstrating the existence of a large number of DNA species; and creating the first descriptions of hypochromicity, hyperchromicity, and the denaturation of a DNA. In addition, Chargaff conducted important research on blood coagulation, lipids and lipoproteins, the metabolism of amino acids and inositol, and the biosynthesis of phosphotransferases. He retired to emeritus status in 1974 and remained active in research almost to the time of his death in June 2002.
The Chargaff Papers are organized into ten series: I. Correspondence, 1931-1992; Ia. Correspondence, 1949-2002; IIa. Grants, 1930-1982; IIb. Subject Files, 1940-1984; IIc. Subject Files, 1946-2002; III. Works by Chargaff, 1929-1989; IIIa. Works by Chargaff, 1923-2002; IIIb. Reprints, 1977-1999; IV. Works by Others, 1936-1985; IVa. Works by Others, 1976-2002; V. Research Notes and Notebooks, 1929-1951 ; VI. Photographs, 1935-1977; VIa. Photographs, 1928-2002; VII. Audiovisual Materials; VIII. Awards and Certificates, 1958-2001; IX. Lecture Notes, 1942-1985; X. Personal Papers, -1985.
One of the foremost contributors to a modern understanding of the nucleic acids, Erwin Chargaff was born in Czernowitz, Austria on August 11, 1905. After receiving a doctorate from the University of Vienna in 1928, he accepted a position at Yale University, where he became the Milton Campbell Research Fellow in Organic Chemistry from 1928 to 1930. From Yale, Chargaff returned to Europe for four years, spending 1930-1933 as Assistant in Charge of Chemistry for the Department of Bacteriology and Public Health at the University of Berlin and 1933-1934 as Research Associate at the Institut Pasteur in Paris.
After his early wanderings, Chargaff settled down to spend his most productive and creative years in association with Columbia University. Starting as a Research Associate in the Department of Biochemistry in 1935, he climbed the academic ladder to Assistant Professor in 1938 and Professor in 1952, eventually becoming departmental chair (1970-1974), and receiving Professor Emeritus (1974).
After reading Oswald Avery's seminal 1944 paper identifying DNA as the hereditary material, Chargaff reoriented his laboratory to the study of the structure and function of nucleic acids and their components using the new chromatographic techniques developed by John Martin and Richard Synge. By 1950, in research funded in part by the Office of Scientific Research and Development, the United States Public Health Service, and the American Cancer Society, Chargaff made a discovery of critical importance, regardless of the source, the amounts of adenine and thymine were equal, as were the amounts of cytosine and guanine. The discovery of this distinctive pattern of base-pairing regularities in DNA (Chargaff's "complementarity relationships") provided a compelling rejection of the tetranucleotide hypothesis and demonstrated the potential for the existence of a large number of species of DNA, however Chargaff made little headway in unraveling the causes of base regularities. In later years, he argued that he had planted the seeds for the double helix in the minds of Watson and Crick during a luncheon meeting in May 1952 to discuss his results, however Chargaff himself failed to make the connections between these regularities and base pairing. In later work, however, he was credited with providing the first demonstrations of hypochromicity, hyperchromicity, and the denaturation of a DNA, and his lab also conducted important research on blood coagulation, lipids and lipoproteins, the metabolism of amino acids and inositol, and the biosynthesis of phosphotransferases.
From the late 1950s, Chargaff grew increasingly disillusioned with molecular biology, the field that he had helped found, lamenting what he perceived as the subordination of biochemistry to molecular pursuits, famously accusing molecular biologists of practicing biochemistry without a license. In later life, he became an outspoken critic of the newer biotechnologies involving cloning, genetic manipulation, and gene transfer, decrying the poverty of bioethical standards in the field and claiming that molecular biology was "running riot and doing things that can never be justified." He spoke and wrote extensively against the use of microbiology in genetic engineering, primarily for a European market, describing himself as "the unwilling cofounder of a science that [he] abhorred." During these years, Chargaff also returned to his youthful interest in language and satire, in particular the works of Karl Kraus, the Viennese satirist.
Throughout his career, Chargaff regularly served as visiting lecturer and professor at other institutions, including the Wenner Gren Center at the University of Stockholm (1949); several universities in Japan (1958); the Universities of Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and Recife in Brazil (1959); and the Collège de France, where he held the Albert Einstein Chair (1965). He gave the Plenary Congress Lecture at the International Biochemistry Congress in Vienna (1958); the Harvey Society Lecture (1956); the Jesup Lectures at Columbia University (1959); and the Miescher Memorial Lecture in Basel (1969). He was on the Committee on Growth of the National Research Council (1952-1954), and he was also on the Advisory Council on Biology at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (1958-1967). His numerous awards and honors include the Pasteur Medal (1949), the Carl Neuberg Medal (1958), the Société de Chimie Biologique Medal (1961), the Charles Leopold Mayer Prize (1963), the H.P. Heineken Prize (1964), the Bertner Foundation Award (1965), the Gregor Mendel Medal (1973), the National Medal of Science (1974), the New York Academy of Medicine Medal (1980), and Columbia University's Distinguished Service Award (1982). He was also awarded an honorary ScD from Columbia University (1976) and an honorary doctorate from the University of Basel (1976).
Chargaff also was awarded numerous awards and honors for his work as an essayist and ethicist during his later years, including the Grosse Goldene Ehrenzeichen für Verdienste um die Republik Osterreich (1990), Osterreichische Ehrenzeichen für Wissenschaft und Kunst (1994), Preis der Stadt Wien für Publizistik (1994), Friedrick Märker-Preis für Essayisten (2000) and the Ehrenmedaille der Bundeshauptstadt Wien in Gold (2001).
Chargaff has been a member of the editorial boards for Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, Columbia University's Forum, and American Chemical Society Monographs, as well as a member of the advisory board for Experimental Cell Research. He was a member of the Royal Swedish Physiographic Society (1959), the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1961), the National Academy of Sciences (1965), the American Philosophical Society (1979), and many other professional organizations.
Chargaff published almost 500 articles in English, German, French and Italian. Most were published during his years at Columbia, some as collaborations with his students and colleagues. He also published several books during this time, including three volumes called the Nucleic Acids in 1955 and 1960 with J. N. Davidson; Essays on Nucleic Acids in 1963; and Voices in the Labyrinth: Dialogues Around the Study of Nature in 1977. His autobiographical Heraclitean Fire was published in 1978. In his later years, he published numerous essays, primarily written in German, and frequently made television and radio appearances in Europe, arguing against the use of molecular biology in genetic engineering.
Chargaff married Vera Broido in 1928, with whom he had one child, Thomas, and became an American citizen in 1940. After a falling out with the department at Columbia following his retirement to emeritus status in 1974, Chargaff moved his laboratory to Columbia's affiliate, Roosevelt Hospital, where he continued to work until 1992. He died on June 20, 2002 at the age of 96.
The Erwin Chargaff Papers (1929-1992) contain correspondence; grant material; subject files; manuscripts of published and unpublished works by Chargaff; papers by colleagues, correspondents and students; research notes by Chargaff and students; photographs and negatives; audiovisual materials; lecture notes; awards and certificates; and personal documents. The majority of the collection prior to 1990 is in English, but there is a significant amount of material in German. After 1990, the bulk of the collection is in German. These folders are marked "In German" or "Some in German" as appropriate. While the collection spans the years 1929 to 1992, the bulk of the collection dates from the 1940s to the 1970s, although there are a significant number of papers from 1990-2002. Papers that were accessioned in the 2002 deposit have been kept separate in their own subseries except for correspondence with correspondents for whom a file already existed in the original Series I. Correspondence with these correspondents were interfiled with the original correspondence. Some of the papers in the 2002 accession include early documents, letters, date books and other works by Chargaff.
The papers (113 boxes; 56 linear feet) are divided into ten series:
|Series I||Correspondence, 1931-1992||30 linear feet|
|Series Ia||Correspondence, 1949-2002||5 boxes; 2.5 linear feet|
|Series IIa||Grants, 1930-1982||3.5 linear feet|
|Series IIb||Subject files, 1940-1984||1.5 linear feet|
|Series IIc||Subject Files, 1946-2002||1 box; .25 linear feet|
|Series III||Works by Chargaff, 1929-1989||15.5 linear feet|
|Series IIIa||Works by Chargaff, 1923-2002||5 boxes; 2 linear feet|
|Series IIIb||Works by Chargaff: Reprints, 1977-1999||3 boxes; 1 linear feet|
|Series IV||Works by others, 1936-1985||1.25 linear feet|
|Series IVa||Works by Others, 1976-2002||1 box; .5 linear feet|
|Series V||Research notes, 1929-1951||2.25 linear feet|
|Series VI||Photographs, 1935-1977||1.75 linear feet|
|Series VIa||Photographs and Negatives, 1928-2002||11 boxes; 2 linear feet|
|Series VII||Audiovisual materials||2 boxes; .5 linear feet|
|Series VIII||Awards and Certificates, 1958-2001||7 boxes; 4 linear feet|
|Series IX||Lecture Notes, 1942-1985||3 boxes; 1.25 linear feet|
|Series X||Personal Papers, -1985||1 box; .5 linear feet|
|Series I-X||Oversized materials||2 boxes; 1 linear feet|
The Chargaff Papers were donated to the APS by Erwin Chargaff in 1975. An extensive description of the original order of the collection was written in 1977 by Pnina Abir-Am for Survey of Sources for the History of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. To see this original description, consult the manuscripts librarian. In 1987 the papers were donated by Chargaff. In 1987 additional papers were deposited by Chargaff. These papers were interfiled in the collection and the finding aid updated by Miriam B. Spectre. In 2002, a final deposit was made upon Chargaff's death, and the finding aid revised to reflect this deposit.
Catalogued by Miriam Spectre,1993, revised 1998.
Physiology, Biochemistry, and Biophysics Note
Erwin Chargaff was the first biochemist in America to develop a substantial research program centered around the genetic specificity of nucleic acids, research that formed a major chapter in the history of molecular biology. Having been one of a handful of life scientists in the mid-1940s to appreciate the significance of O. T. Avery's discovery that DNA was the transforming principle in pneumococci, Chargaff set out to probe the chemical properties of nucleic acids in relation to their biological specificity. By 1950 his finding that DNA could account for genetic specificity led to the demise of P. A. Levene's dominant tetranucleotide theory of DNA structure, which regarded DNA as ill-suited for carrying information. Chargaff's findings also eclipsed some of Max Bergmann's protein theories of biological specificity. Chargaff's work was a turning point in gene research from proteins to nucleic acids, and his laboratory at Columbia (in the biochemistry department headed by Hans Thacher Clarke) became a premier center for nucleic acids chemistry.
The Chargaff Papers document in detail the intellectual and social history of his research program. The collection contains records of Chargaff's investigations on rickettsia and typhus during the war years 1942-1945 as part of the OSRD projects, as well as material on his research on the chemistry of blood coagulants; these are important sources on the relation of the life sciences to the military. There is a great deal of material on the crucial years 1945-1950, during which time Chargaff reoriented his research program toward the chemistry of heredity, and records that include rejections of his research proposals by several foundations.
After 1950, with the increased interest in nucleic acids, Chargaff gained recognition and acquired his own research facilities at Columbia, the Laboratory of Cell Chemistry. Also included is material on nucleic acids research, the rise of molecular genetics, and Chargaff's role in these developments. Of interest are his exchanges with pharmaceutical houses (circa 1940s-1950s), including Hoffmann-La Roche, Bio-Vin, Upjohn, Eli Lilly, Rohm and Haas, and Parke-Davis, communications highlighting the links between academic and industrial biochemistry. The remainder of the correspondence (1960s) reflects the expansion of Chargaff's administrative activities and his increased influence within the life sciences.
Unfortunately there is little material on Chargaff's years in Germany or the period 1934-1941, when he first established his research program at Columbia. But being a prolific writer and a vociferous critic of American culture, Chargaff frequently compared his European and American experiences. His correspondence with many European colleagues throughout the 1940s and 1950s deals with issues surrounding the intellectual migration and reflects this cross-cultural perspective.
Series I. Correspondence:
|Anderson, Rudolph John, 1879-1961||Correspondence (17 items)||1943-1961||English|
|Astbury, William Thomas, 1898-1961||Correspondence (14 items)||1951-1961||English|
|Barzun, Jacques, b. 1907||Correspondence (31 items)||1958-1978||English|
|Bergmann, Ernst David, 1903-1975||Correspondence (10 items)||1947-1952||English|
|Bernhard, Karl||Correspondence (20 items)||1945-1949, 1964||German|
|Bondi, Alfred||Correspondence (26 items)||1949-1966||German|
|Brachet, J. (Jean), 1909-1998||Correspondence (24 items)||1949-1974||French|
|Brawerman, George||Correspondence (191 items)||1951-1976||English|
|Cohen, Seymour S. (Seymour Stanley), 1917-||Correspondence (96 items)||1942-1982||French|
|Cohn, Waldo E.||Correspondence (3 folders)||1950-1980||English|
|Columbia University||Correspondence (10 folders)||1941-1989||English|
|Crick, Francis, 1916-2004||Correspondence (6 items)||1954, 1974||English|
|Davidson, John Norman||Correspondence (4 folders)||1947-1972||English|
|Doty, Paul||Correspondence (21 items)||1952-1953, 1966||English|
|Ehrensvard, Gosta Carl Henrik, Greve, 1910-1980||Correspondence (64 items)||1949-1959||English|
|Elson, David||Correspondence (128 items)||1949-1974||English|
|Frazer, Alastair Campbell, 1909-1969||Correspondence (37 items)||1946-1964||English|
|Gamow, George, 1904-1968 ( Correspondence regarding biochemistry and organic chemistry, human genetics, molecular genetics, and the RNA Tie Club.)||Correspondence (21 items)||1954-1955||English|
|Gustafson, Tryggve||Correspondence (24 items)||1949-1954||English|
|Haurowitz, Felix, 1896-1987||Correspondence (17 items)||1950-1960||German|
|Hawthorne, J. N. (John Nigel)||Correspondence (2 folders)||1951-1984||English|
|Hoffmann-LaRoche, Inc.||Correspondence (81 items)||1942-1971||German|
|Horstadius, Sven, 1898-1996||Correspondence (41 items)||1949-1954||English|
|Hotchkiss, Rollin Douglas, 1911-2004||Correspondence (18 items)||1949-1979||English|
|Kendrew, John C. (John Cowdery), 1917-1997||Correspondence (43 items)||1951-1974||English|
|Lederberg, Joshua||Correspondence (8 items)||1950-1958||English|
|Linderstrom-Lang, Kaj Ulrik, 1896-1959||Correspondence (17 items)||1951-1959||English|
|Monroy, Alberto||Correspondence (53 items)||1950-1985||English|
|Parke, Davis and Company||Correspondence (30 items)||1935-1961||English|
|Pauling, Linus, 1901-1994 ( Correspondence regarding Columbia University, requests for aid in finding positions, biochemistry and organic chemistry, editorial matters, professional associations, and the Nobel Prize.)||Correspondence (10 items)||1945-1972||English|
|Pirie, N. W. (Norman Wingate), 1907-1997||Correspondence (50 items)||1945-1983||English|
|Pollock, Martin Rivers, 1914-1999||Correspondence (13 items)||1962-1971||English|
|Reichstein, Tadeusz, 1897-1996||Correspondence (50 items)||1947-1954, 1964||German|
|Rittenberg, David, 1906-1970||Correspondence (21 items)||1954-1966||English|
|Rohm and Haas Company||Correspondence (11 items)||1945-1953||English|
|Runnstrom, John Axel Mauritz, 1888-1971||Correspondence (102 items)||1947-1971||English|
|Saukkonen, Jussi J.||Correspondence (64 items)||1956-1968||English|
|Schmidt, Gerhard||Correspondence (81 items)||1944-1976||English|
|Slater, Donald W.||Correspondence (4 items)||1959, 1971||English|
|Tamm, Christoph, 1923-||Correspondence (1 folder)||1950-1975||German|
|Todd, Alexander R. (Alexander Robertus), 1907-1997||Correspondence (26 items)||1945-1957||English|
|Upjohn Company||Correspondence (8 items)||1947-1948||English|
|Vendrely, Roger||Correspondence (11 items)||1951-1971||French|
|Viobin Corporation||Correspondence (15 items)||1948, 1950||English|
|Vischer, Ernst Benedikt||Correspondence (100 items)||1947-1971||German|
|Wilkins, Maurice, 1916-2004||Correspondence (18 items)||1951-1954||English|
Series IIa. Grants:
|Lilly Research Laboratories||Correspondence (19 items)||1952-1955||English|
|Office of Scientific Research and Development ( Investigations on rickettsia and typhus during the war years, 1942-1945.)||Correspondence (12 folders)||1942-1947||English|
This collection contains materials which relate to the history of genetics.
|American Association for the Advancement of Science||Correspondence (58 items)||1949-1981|
|American Institute of Biological Sciences||Correspondence (23 items)||1949-1958|
|Beadle, George Wells||Correspondence (4 items)||1961, 1966|
|Biochimica et Biophysica Acta||Records (39 folders)||1951-1972, 1981|
|Britain. Parliament Subcommittee on Genetic Engineering||Correspondence (3 items)||1979|
|Chargaff, Erwin -- Bibliographies||Manuscripts (2 folders)||Circa 1930s - Circa 1970s|
|Chargaff, Erwin -- Research notes||Manuscripts (2.25 linear feet)||1929-1951|
|Columbia University||Records (14 folders)||1941-1989|
|Ephrussi, Boris||Correspondence (10 items)||1957-1965|
|Gamow, George||Correspondence (21 items)||1954-1955|
|Judson, Horace Freeland||Correspondence (10 items)||1976-1981|
|McClintock, Barbara||Correspondence (2 items)||1952|
|Medawar, Peter Brian||Correspondence (7 items)||1978-1984|
|Medvedev, Zhores A.||Correspondence (6 items)||1964|
|National Academy of Sciences||Records (10 folders)||1950, 1959-1985|
|National Academy of Sciences||Records (6 folders)||1963-1976|
|Olby, Robert Cecil||Correspondence (10 items)||1967-1973|
|Pauling, Linus||Correspondence (10 items)||1945-1972|
|Sonneborn, Tracy M.||Correspondence (8 items)||1959-1963|
|Union Carbide Corporation||Correspondence (4 folders)||1945-1976|
- American Cancer Society.
- American Chemical Society.
- Columbia University.
- National Academy of Sciences. (U.S.)
- United States. Office of Scientific Research and Development
- United States. Public Health Service.
- Laboratory notebooks
- Anderson, Rudolph J.
- Barzun, Jacques, 1907-2012
- Burris, Robert H. (Robert Harza), 1914-
- Carter, Herbert E.
- Chargaff, Erwin
- Cohn, Waldo E.
- Crick, Francis, 1916-2004
- Davidson, J. N. (James Norman)
- Doty, Paul
- Edsall, John T., (John Tileston), 1902-2002
- Gamow, George, 1904-1968
- Hardin, Garrett James, 1915-2003
- Kusch, Polykarp, 1911-1993
- Lederberg, Joshua
- Lederer, Edgar.
- McClintock, Barbara, 1902-1992
- Pauling, Linus, 1901-1994
- Perutz, Max F.
- Runnstrom, John.
- Schmidt, Gerhard
- Schmitt, Francis Ottom, 1903-
- Stanacev, Nikola Z.
- Straus, Werner
- Waelsch, Heinrich B.
- Wald, George
- Watson, James D., 1928-
- Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
- Nucleic acids
- Nucleic acids--Structure
- Recombinant DNA
Series I. Correspondence
|1931-1992||30 linear feet|
Incoming and outgoing manuscript and typescript letters, carbons, telegrams, and postcards generated during Chargaff's career. The largest series in the collection, Series I is arranged alphabetically by correspondent's name and then chronologically within each folder. When a correspondence file includes letters to a third party (i.e., not Chargaff), the name is indicated on the container list by using an indent under the folder title.
Unidentified correspondence has been filed as "Unidentified" and is arranged chronologically.
Enclosed manuscripts have been removed from this series and placed in Series III or IV as appropriate. As with the reprints, a photocopy of the title page was filed with the original letter. Cross-references are also given for enclosed photographs, which have been removed to Series VI. The bulk of this series covers the 1940s to the 1970s. Correspondence regarding grants has been filed in Series IIa under the name of the granting agency.
Correspondents include biochemists, chemists, molecular biologists, students, publishers, and European colleagues. Among the topics covered in this series are: nucleic acids, recombinant DNA, denaturation of DNA, and blood clotting. There is a substantial amount of correspondence regarding the administration of Chargaff's research laboratories at Columbia University and at Roosevelt Hospital, his work as editor for the journal, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, and his affiliations with many scientific organizations, such as the National Academy of Sciences and the American Chemical Society. Also included is correspondence with various pharmaceutical companies, such as Hoffmann-LaRoche, Parke-Davis, Rohm and Haas, Upjohn, and Viobin, regarding research material. Because of Chargaff's frequent trips to Europe, there is a substantial amount of correspondence with his students about laboratory research taking place in his absence. For lists of these correspondents, see the cross-references on the folders of Emmy Bloch, Charlotte Green, and Elisabeth Van Vendeloo. For lists of correspondence related to recombinant DNA, see the cross-references on the folder labeled "Recombinant DNA" in Series IIb. Correspondence regarding Chargaff's work on the Advisory Council on Biology at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is filed under "Union Carbide Corporation." Letters of reference are filed under the name of the person who is the subject of the letter.
Abelson, Philip H.
See also Ser.I, Science
See also Ser.I, Survey of Sources for the History of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Abrahams, D. Gordan
Abrams, Isabel S.
AC-Lab Equipment Company
Academic Press, Inc.
Belozersky, A.N. Cohen, Seymour S. Chuvikov, Pavel Davidson, J. Norman Grassé, Pierre P. Gros, François Hoagland, Mahlon B. Holiday, Ensor R. Jacoby, Kurt Kahane, Ernest Khorana, Har Gobind Sadron, Charles Schlenk, Fritz Schuster, Heinz Stacey, M. Thorell, Bo See also Ser.I, Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics See also Ser.I, Davidson, J. Norman See also Ser.I, Dounce, Alexander L. See also Ser.I, Experimental Cell Research See also Ser.I, Zamenhof, Stephen
Academy of Senior Professionals
Accounts of Chemical Research
See also Ser.I, Mount Sinai School of Medicine
|1950, 1969||Box 1|
|1951-1952, 1960||Box 1|
Some in German
Advances in Enzymology
Advances in Protein Chemistry
Edsall, John T.
See also Ser.I, Hoffmann-LaRoche, Inc.
Agaswal, Asun Kumar
|1949, 1959||Box 1|
Ahrens, Edward H., Jr.
|1951, 1960||Box 1|
Ajl, Samuel J.
See Ser.I, National Foundation See Ser.I, National Science Foundation
Albany Medical College of Union University
Isaac Albert Research Institute
Alborghetti, Anna Lombard
some in Italian
|1962, 1985-1986||Box 2|
Allen, Frank W.
See also Ser.I, University of California
Allen, Henry W.
Allen, Robert F., Jr.
Ross Allen's Reptile Institute
|1952, 1954||Box 2|
Allied Chemical and Dye Corporation
Allison, James B.
Alonso, Margaret Barres
Alpha Omega Alpha
Alrose Chemical Company
Aluminum Company of America
Ambrose, John A.
|1951, 1966||Box 2|
See also Ser.I, Columbia University.
Amend Drug and Chemical Company, Inc.
American Academy of Arts and Sciences
Edsall, John T. See also Ser.I, Daedalus See also Ser.IIb, American Academy of Arts and Sciences See also Oversized
American Association for Cancer Research, Inc.
See also Ser.IIa, American Cancer
American Association for the Advancement of Science
|1949-1981||58.0 Item(s)||Box 2|
Behrens, Otto K. Brown, George B. Fraenkel-Conrat, Heinz Schmidt, Gerhard Stern, Kurt G. Wyckoff, Ralph W.G. See also Ser.I, Ranzi, Silvio
Subject(s): American Association for the Advancement of Science; Biochemistry and organic chemistry; Conferences and symposia -- Gordon Conferences; Cytogenetics; Human genetics; Reviews
American Association of Clinical Chemists, Inc.
American Association of University Professors
|1957-1958, 1973||Box 2|
American Bar Association
American Cancer Society, Inc.
|1959, 1961||Box 2|
Busch, Harris See also Ser.IIa, American Cancer Society, Inc. See also Oversized
American Chemical Society
Beadle, George W. Brand, Erwin Dische, Zacharias Edsall, John T. Harte, Robert A. Jordan, D.O. Kream, Jacob Kunitz, Moses Loring, Hubert S. Mirsky, Alfred E. Schmidt, Gerhard Stanley, Wendell M. Todd, Alexander R. See also Ser.I, Cohn, Waldo E.
American Chemical Society Monographs
Engel, Lewis L. Fox, Sidney W. Sprinson, David B.
American Council on Education
|1964, 1966||Box 2|
American Cyanamid Company
American Foundation Studies in Government
American Heart Association, Inc.
See also Ser.IIa, American Heart
American Institute of Biological Sciences
|1949-1958||23.0 Item(s)||Box 2|
Cohn, Waldo E. Heidelberger, Michael
Subject(s): American Institute of Biological Sciences; Biochemistry and organic chemistry; Committee activities; Conferences and symposia; Publication; Travel -- Invitations, arrangements
American Institute of Chemists
American Instrument Company, Inc.
American Journal of Human Genetics
American Lecithin Company, Inc.
American Men of Science
American Optical Company
American Philosophical Society
American Psychosomatic Society
American Society for Cell Biology
Novikoff, Alex B.
American Society for International Scientific Relations
American Society for Microbiology
American Society for Technion
American Society of Biological Chemists, Inc.
Brown, George B. Burris, Robert H. Cohen, Philip P. Cohn, Waldo E. Greenberg, David M. Gurin, Samuel Harte, Robert A. Stotz, Elmer H.
American Society of European Chemists and Pharmacists
American Type Culture Collection
Ames, Bruce N.
See also Ser.I, Morgan, W.T.J.
|1952, 1954||Box 3|
Anderson, Dorothy H.
|1952, 1955||Box 3|
Anderson, Porter, Jr.
Anderson, Rudolph J.
See also Ser.I, The Journal of Biological
Anfinsen, Christian B., Jr.
|1953, 1958||Box 3|
See also Ser.I, United States Public Health
H. Reeve Angel and Company
|1949-1952, 1957||Box 3|
|1953, 1955||Box 3|
Animal Behavior Enterprises
Anker, Herbert S.
Annual Review of Biochemistry
Luck, J. Murray
Annual Review of Microbiology
Annual Reviews, Inc.
Drabkin, David L. Luck, J. Murray
Anshen, Ruth Nanda
See also Ser.I, Conference on Personal Freedom in an Era of Social Engineering See also Ser.I, Doubleday and Company, Inc. See also Ser.I, Seabury Press, Inc. See also Ser.I, World Perspectives
Antonov, Andrew S.
Aposhian, H. Vasken
Apsell, Paula S.
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Armed Forces Medical Library
Armour and Company
|1949, 1955-1957||Box 4|
Armstrong, S. Howard, Jr.
Army Medical School
Smadel, Joseph E.
Arnon, Daniel I.
Aronson, Joseph D.
|1957, 1964||Box 4|
Associated Concentrates, Inc.
Association of the Bar of the City of New York
|1951-1955, 1961||Box 4|
|1968, 1974||Box 4|
Atlas Powder Company
Atoms for Peace Awards, Inc.
Atwood, Kimball C.
Auer, Henry E.
August, J. Thomas
Australia. Bureau of Sugar Experiment Stations
Australian and New Zealand Association for the Advancement of Science, Inc.
Austrian Consulate General
Aviado, Domingo M.
Ayala Gonzalez, Abraham
Bach, Michael K.
See also Ser.I, Davidson, J. Norman
Baer, Adela S.
See also Ser.I, Watson, R.W.
Some in French
Bales, James D.
Ballou, Clinton E.
Bancroft, Frederic W.
|1936, n.d.||Box 4|
Bareikis, Robert P.
Some in German
Bargetzi, Jean Pierre
Barnes, Richard H.
See also Ser.I, Sharp and Dohme
Barr, David P.
Barr, Donald (Mrs.)
Barron, E.S. Guzman
Barrymore, Edith R.
Rittenberg, David See also Ser.I, Columbia University. Forum
Bashey, Reza Ismail
Bates, Griffin M.
Bates, Harold M.
See also Ser.I, British Broadcasting
Some in French
Baxi, Arvind Jayantilal
Baylor College of Medicine
Beadle, George W.
|1961, 1966||4.0 Item(s)||Box 4|
See also Ser.I, American Chemical Society
Subject(s): Biochemistry and organic chemistry; Congratulations, greetings, thanks; Ephrussi, Boris; Human genetics
Beard, Joseph W.
Bearn, Alexander G.
|1977, 1979||Box 4|
Beck, Jay V.
Beckman Instruments, Inc.
Some in German
Behre, Charles H., Jr.
Behrens, Otto K.
See also Ser.I, American Association for the Advancement of Science See also Ser.IIa, Lilly Research Laboratories
Some in French See also Ser.I, Proceedings of the National
Belkhode, Madhukar Laxman
Bellin, Judith S.
Bellomy, W. Dexter
Some in Russian See also Ser.I, Academic Press, Inc.
Benesch, Ruth E.
Benesch, Ruth E.
See also Ser.I, Benesch, Reinhold See also Ser.I, Cohn, Waldo E.
Bengelsdorf, Irving S.
Benitez, Helena H.
See also Ser.I, Gloor, H.
Bennett, H. Stanley
|1949, 1953||Box 5|
Berg, Nils O.
Berger, David A.
Berger, Richard G.
Bergmann, Ernst D.
See also Ser.I, Morgan, W.T.J.
Bergquist, Lois M.
Berne, Robert M.
|1945-1949, 1964||Box 5|
Bernheimer, Alan W.
Bernstein, Maurice H.
|1967, 1970||Box 5|
Berson, Solomon A. (Mrs.)
|1971, 1981||Box 5|
Bersworth Chemical Company
Best, Charles H.
Bettmann, Otto L.
Bhattacharya, Kshirod Ranjan
Bhattacharyya, Jit R.
Billing, Barbara H.
Davidson, J. Norman
Biochimica e Biologia Sperimentale
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
|1951-1972, 1981||39 folders||Box 6 to 12|
Cohn, Waldo E., 1958 Gaade, W. Lauffer, Max A., 1963 Morgan, J.F. Ochoa, Severo, 1955 See also Ser.I, Nakada, Daisure See also Ser.I, Van Lancker, Julian
Subject(s): Biochemistry and organic chemistry; Editorial matters -- Biochimica et Biophysica Acta; Publication -- Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
|1951-Aug. 1955||Box 6|
|Sep.1955-May 1956||Box 6|
|Jun.-Dec. 1956||Box 6|
|Jan.-May 1957||Box 6|
|Jun.-Dec. 1957||Box 6|
|Jan.-May 1958||Box 7|
|Jun.-Dec. 1958||Box 7|
|Jan.-Apr. 1960||Box 7|
|May-20 Jun. 1960||Box 7|
|Jun.-Jul. 1960||Box 7|
|Sep. 1960||Box 8|
|Oct. 1960||Box 8|
|Nov. 1960||Box 8|
|Dec. 1960||Box 8|
|Jan.-Feb. 1962||Box 8|
|Mar. 1962||Box 8|
|Apr.-May 1962||Box 9|
|Jun.-Aug. 1962||Box 9|
|Sep. 1962||Box 9|
|Oct.-7 Nov. 1962||Box 9|
|9-30 Nov. 1962||Box 9|
|Dec. 1962||Box 9|
|Jan.-8 Mar. 1963||Box 9|
|12 Mar.-May 1963||Box 10|
|Jun.-11 Oct. 1963||Box 10|
|17 Oct.-Dec. 1963||Box 10|
|Jan. 1964||Box 10|
|Mar. 1964||Box 10|
|Apr. 1964||Box 10|
|May-Sep. 1964||Box 11|
|Oct.-Nov. 1964||Box 11|
|Dec. 1964-Mar. 1965||Box 12|
|Apr. 1965-Dec. 1965||Box 12|
|1968-Mar. 1969||Box 12|
|Apr. 1969-1972, 1981||Box 12|
Bios Laboratories, Inc.
Biswas, Birendra N.
Black, Donald Norman
|1963-1972, 1984||Box 12|
See also Ser.I, Van Vendeloo, Elisabeth
Blake, Charles H.
Blankenship, L. Vaughn
Blecher, Saul A.
|1951-1958, 1982||Box 13|
Brawerman, George Crampton, Charles F. Elson, David Franzl, Robert E. Garrigan, Owen W. Goodman, Fred Hawthorne, John Nigel Hodes, Marion Edward Horowitz, Jack Lipshitz, Rakoma Mezzapelle, Dominic M. Murray, Margaret R. Rosenberg, Abraham Saukkonen, Jussi J. Schulman, Herbert Michael Shapiro, Herman S. Shigeura, Harold T. Taborda, Armando Taborda, Laura See also Ser.I, Elson, David See also Ser.I, Horowitz, Jack
Bloch, Herbert O.
|1955, 1957, 1969||Box 13|
Some in German
|1950, 1964, 1970, 1983||Box 13|
See also Ser.I, National Academy of
Frank H. Blodgett, Inc.
Bobbs-Merrill Company, Inc.
See also Ser.I, Experientia
Some in German
Boehringer, C. F. and Soehne
See also Ser.I, Elsevier Publishing
Boffey, Philip M.
Bohinski, Robert C.
Bollum, Frederick J.
See also Ser.I, Union Carbide Corporation
Bonaparte, Robert L.
Some in German
Bonventre, Peter F.
Bookchin, Robert M.
Borun, Thaddeus W.
Boulakia, Fabien Cohen
Some in French
Bower, Raymond K.
Boxer, George E.
See also Ser.I, Merck Sharp and Dohme
Boyd, William C.
|1949-1964, 1974||Box 13|
Some in French See also Ser.I, Davidson, J. Norman See also Ser.I, Pollister, Arthur W.
Bramwell, Michael E.
|1949, 1952||Box 13|
See also Ser.I, American Chemical Society See also Ser.I, J.S. Canner and Company, Inc. See also Ser.I, Menaker, Walter
Kaplan, Nathan O.
Brandt, Ira K.
Bransome, Edwin D., Jr.
Cohn, Waldo E. Hendry, Lawrence B. Karkas, John D., 1963 Rüst, Peter, 1963 See also Ser.I, Hendry, Lawrence B. See also Ser.I, Sigma Chemical Company
Braun, Armin C.
See Ser.I, Proceedings of the National
Some in German
Some in German
Braunstein, Aleksander E.
Braverman, Albert S.
See Ser.I, Committee to Defend the
The Journal of Biological Chemistry Lipshitz, Rakoma, 1958 Loeb, Marilyn R. Rosenberg, Abraham, 1958 Shigeura, Harold T., 1957 See also Ser.I, Bloch, Emmy See also Ser.I, Elson, David See also Ser.I, The Journal of Biological Chemistry See also Ser.I, Shapiro, Herman S.
Breena, Robert L., Jr.
Brett-Crowther, Michael R.
C.A. Brinkmann and Company
Britain. Parliament Subcommittee on Genetic Engineering
|1979||3.0 Item(s)||Box 14|
Subject(s): Committee activities; Ethical issues; Genetics; Medical research; Political issues
British Broadcasting Corporation
|1967, 1976-1977||Box 14|
British Columbia Academy of Sciences
Brito da Cunha, A.
Brodie, Arnold F.
Brookhaven National Laboratory
See also Ser.I, New York Public Interest
Brown, David H.
Brown, Geoffrey L.
|1953, 1955||Box 14|
Brown, George B.
|1952-1959, 1978||Box 14|
Davidson, J. Norman Journal of the American Chemical Society See also Ser.I, American Association for the Advancement of Science See also Ser.I, American Society of Biological Chemists, Inc. See also Ser.I, Cohn, Edwin J. See also Ser.I, Davidson, J. Norman See also Ser.I, International Congress of Biochemistry See also Ser.I, Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research
See also Ser.I, McCluer, Robert H.
Brown, Jeanette S.
Brown, W. Ted
Brunngraber, Elinor Flora
Goldberg, Richard Hogenkamp, H.P.C. Lin, Hsiang Ju, 1963 Türler, Hans, 1963 See also Ser.I, Karkas, John D.
Buchanan, John M.
Some in French
Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists
Bunch, Stuart L.
Burger, Charles L.
Some in German
Burr, George O.
Burris, Robert H.
|1955-1956, 1965||Box 14|
See also Ser.I, American Society of
See also Ser.I, American Cancer Society,
Butler, J. A. V.
|1951-1952, 1957||Box 14|
See also Ser.I, Faraday Society
Buzzati-Traverso, A. A.
See also Ser.I, International Laboratory of Genetics and Biophysics See also Oversized
Byrns, Arthur G.
California Foundation for Biochemical Research
Cambridge City Council
Cambridge University Press
|1955, 1959, 1961||Box 15|
|1959, 1965||Box 15|
Canada. National Research Council
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
Canadian Journal of Biochemistry
Canadian Journal of Chemistry
Canella, Mario F.
Cantino, Edward C.
Cantoni, Giulio L.
|1963, 1969||Box 15|
Cantor, Charles A.
Dowben, Robert M.
Capps, Richard B.
|1945, 1950, 1961||Box 15|
Carr, Donald E.
Carter, Charles Edward
|1949-1950, 1957||Box 15|
Carter, Herbert E.
|1943-1954, 1957||Box 15|
See also Ser.I, National Academy of Sciences See also Ser.I, National Research Council See also Ser.I, National Science Foundation See also Ser.I, Woolley, D.W.
Carter, Richard B.
Fred S. Carver, Inc.
Some in French
Castaneda, M. Ruiz
Catchpole, Hubert R.
Catherwood, Paul D.
See Ser.I, American Men of Science See Ser.I, Science
Cavalieri, Liebe F.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences See also Ser.I, Center for Responsible Technology See also Ser.I, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Center for Responsible Technology
Cavalieri, Liebe F.
Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique
Some in French
Chambers, Jack A.
|1960, 1964, 1970||Box 15|
Chambers, Leslie A.
Chandler, Bruce F.
Chang, Mike S.H.