Footnotes, Section 5-9
190. Head Account Book, pp. 35; Familysearch.com. John Jones is not mentioned in Head's will, unlike some of his other sons-in-laws. He may therefore have predeceased Head. If the Jones clock and case were brought to Head's home for safe-keeping that might explain why they were the only household furniture expressly described, and also why they went to Rebecca Jones, rather than to another child or in-law. That "John Jones Taner" was the John Jones who married Rebecca may also be circumstantially corroborated by another route. Their daughter, Hannah Jones, married Joseph Janney (c.1733, Bucks County, Pa.-1793, Va.) in 1764 at the Horsham, Pennsylvania Monthly Quaker Meeting. Janney moved to Loudoun County, Virginia, circa 1752, where he maintained a stable and tanning yard. Perhaps he had apprenticed in Philadelphia with his future father-in-law before moving on at about age 18. Janney also became a real estate investor and served as agent for his "cousins," Jeremiah Warder and John Head, Jr. Gen-nections, http://my.ispchannel.com/~gennections/schedule.html.
192. Head Account Book, p. 116 right [9/28/28]. Webster thought that such name applied in America "only to a bed cover for ordinary beds, and to a covering before the fireplace." He acknowledged that the term had formerly been given to "a coarse kind of frieze used for winter garments." Schiffer, Chester County, Pennsylvania Inventories, p. 90, citing Webster (ed. 1828).
193. Watson, Annals, p. 205 [carpets]. But Schiffer lists no "Floor Carpet" expressly described until the 1775 inventory of John Scott, Jr., of Easttown. Schiffer, Chester County, Pennsylvania Inventories, p. 90.
195. Other paper he bought and sold, including one "Rime [ream]" and one quire. Head may never have taken physical possession of the "Rime of paper," credited at £0-18-0 to Edwd [Edward] Horn, and debited that same date, at no profit, to Joseph Paschal. As such, it may have been a "paper transaction" in the modern sense. The other ream was bought from John White, on 4/10/8, at £1-2-0. The quire was bought from Franses Knowls [Francis Knowles], on 7/7/27, for an unrecorded price, and sold to John Campbell, on 4/20/28, at £0-1-4. Head Account Book, pp. 72 right [Horn], 94 left [Paschal], 99 left [Campbell], 105 right [Knowls], 117 right [White].
199. William Morgan, who advertised that a man "Lately arrived from London" was working at his shop "over against the Three Tuns to Chestnut Street," and "turns all Sorts of Turning in Hard Wood, as Coffee-Mills, Pepper Boxes, Punch Bowls, Mortors, Sugar Boxes & in the best Manner." Pennsylvania Gazette, October 26-November 2, 1732, cited in Prime, Arts & Crafts, p. 187.
200. Griscom was credited £0-5-7 1/2, on 11/3/21. The "kitle" hired from Casper Wister [Caspar Wistar], at £0-3-0, on 4/18/30, may have had some limited specialized use in the shop, as Wistar was in the business of casting brass. Aspin was credited on 6/3/26 with £0-16-0. Head Account Book, pp. 79 right [Wallas], 87 right [Wister, Aspdin], 130 right [Griskam]. Head also sold pots: iron pots to Hugh Thomas, in 1722; and, a decade later, "[e]arthen pots" to Richard Hains, on 4/28/32, and Thomas Wilkins, in 9/0/33. Head Account Book, pp. 23 [Thomas], 41 left [Willkins], 68 left [Hains]. Earthenware pots may have also been used to display flowers, a frequent ornament in rooms. Kalm, Travels, 1:131.
201. Head Account Book, pp. 65 right [Carr], 70 right [Jonson], 98 right [Townsend], 101 right [Shut], 120 right [Canan]. Joshua Johnson was a London Quaker emigrant. His daughter, Sarah, married (1737) Quaker merchant Samuel Sansom (1707-74). Their son William Sansom married (1788) Susannah Head, daughter of his former partner, John Head, Jr. Crane, Diary of Elizabeth Drinker, p. 334.
202. Head Account Book, pp. 54 right [Lingers], 70 right [Jonson], 125 right [Asp], 130 right [Griskam]; [Benjamin Franklin], Poor Richard's Almanac, 1740 (Philadelphia: B. Franklin, 1740), last page [Wilkinson advertisement]. There is no evidence that Head owned a Franklin almanac, but he did sell an earlier one, on 10/30/26, to Thomas Georg [George], at £0-0-5. Head Account Book, p. 93 left. Given the hardware items Head bought from his "William Lingers," it is assumed that he is the "Wm[.] Lingard, Smith" admitted as a freeman on May 20, 1717. Minutes of the Common Council, p. 126.
204. Charles F. Montgomery, A History of American Pewter (New York: Praeger, 1973), pp. 2-4. Montgomery was former director of the Winterthur Museum and of the American Decorative Arts at Yale University.
205. Another reference found in the course of reviewing Logan's account book and ledger entries against those in the Head account book, is that Logan, debited £2-2-9 to his own account for "Household Goods," on 11/11/24, as "paid Simon Edgel for a Limbeck etc." Logan Ledger, p. 89 left. "Limbeck" is archaic for "alembic," an "obsolete kind of still consisting of a gourd-shaped vessel or cucurbit, and a cap or alembic proper having a long beak for conveying the products to a receiver." The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary on Historical Principles (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993), vol. 1:49, 1590.
206. Head Account Book, pp. 7, 86 left. As Edgell marked his pewter with "Edgell," the variant spellings of his name by Head are probably due to his inconsistent phonetic spelling, rather than to any name change on the part of Edgell. "Simon Edgell, pewterer" was admitted as freeman of the city on May 27, 1717. Minutes of the Common Council, p. 130.
208. Donald L. Fennimore, "Simon Edgell (c. 1688-1742)," Philadelphia: Three Centuries, p. 23. Edgell purchased a house, on High (afterwards Market) St., in 1718. Ledlie Irwin Laughlin, Pewter in America: Its Makers and Their Marks (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1940), vol. 2, p.155.
210. Edgell bought a "Sader [cedar] Chest of drawers And Table," at £10-0-0, on 4/15/19; "a mahogany Dask," at £8-10-0, on 6/25/20; "a mehoganey Chest of Drawers, at £7-15-0, on 5/9/25; and "a Chamber Table," at £2-5-0, on 6/30/29. The "pine Table" that he ordered, on 6/16/32, at £0-13-0 1/2, appears incongruous, but may have been for a kitchen or his workshop. Head Account Book, pp. 7, 86 left.
217. Other objects of pewter-form also are mentioned, but no metal is specifically described. Head debited Thomas Radman £0-2-3, on 2/20/36, "To on Galon of melases and a porringer." Head Account Book, p. 134 left. John Mafel was credited £0-4-10, "To a Tankerd Re[ceive]d of Solaman Crison [Solomon Cresson, the chairmaker]," with no date shown, but probably in 1720. Head Account Book, p. 50 right.
218. Montgomery, Pewter, p. 201. The earliest usage of the term "salts" to mean salt cellars appearing in the Pennsylvania Gazette is an advertisement of 1740. Hamilton and Coleman advertisement, Pennsylvania Gazette, August 7, 1740.
231. Kalm, Travels, 1:49-50. Philadelphia's prosperous trade was even more far flung. Watson quoted Gabriel Thomas, writing in 1698, as crediting the "great and extended Traffique and Commerce both by Sea and Land; viz to New York, New-England, Virginia, Mary-land, Carolina, Jamaica, Barbadoes, Antego, Barmudoes, Maderas, and Old England...." Leibundguth, "Furniture-making," p. 1, citing Watson, Annals, p. 66.
232. Twice a year, in May and November, large-scale fairs were held. Unlike what Head was used to in England, sale by public outcry was uncommon in Philadelphia , except for oysters, perhaps because of their extreme perishability. Kalm, Travels, 1:54, 172. To accommodate those in the southern part of the city who didn't want to traverse Dock Creek to get to Market Street, a second market was established, in 1745, on Second Street south of Pine. Scharf and Westcott, History of Philadelphia, 1:212.
233. Independence Hall National Historical Park Collection. The painting, which had formerly graced the chambers of a Philadelphia judge, is now on view at the Second National Bank, where INHP has organized an exhibit of paintings depicting pre-Revolutionary Philadelphia and its leaders. Personal conversation with Karie Diethorn, an INHP curator, November, 2000. John A. Woodside, Sr. (1781-1852) was a Philadelphia sign and ornamental painter who also decorated fire fighting regalia and equipment. In 1817, he began painting still lifes and pictures of animals at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts. Nicholas B. Wainwright, Paintings and Miniatures at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia: HSP, 1974), p. 332.
237. Kalm, Travels, 1:71-72, 361. Kalm recorded how local berries were used and by whom. "BILBERRIES were likewise a very common dish among the Indians. They are called Huckleberries by the English here....The American ones grow on shrubs, which are from two to four feet high; and there are some species which are about seven feet in height." Kalm, Travels, 2:101. "The Europeans are likewise used to collect a quantity of these berries, to dry them in ovens, to bake them in tarts, and to employ them in several other ways. Some preserve them with treacle. They are likewise eaten raw, either quite alone or with fresh milk." Kalm, Travels, 2:102. He is exuberant about strawberries: "April the 20th . THIS day I found the Strawberries in flower, for the first time, this year: the fruit is commonly larger than that in Sweden; but it seems to be less sweet and agreeable." Kalm, Travels, 2:149. In Philadelphia, on May 25, 1749, Kalm found "THE straw-berries were now ripe on the hills." Kalm, Travels, 2:213. As to cherries, he wrote on May 30, 1749: "RIPE cherries were now already pretty common, and consequently cheap." Kalm, Travels, 2:217.
240. Schweitzer, "The Economy of Philadelphia and Its Hinterland," p. 103. In the second half of the 18th century, Philadelphia was to serve as the "breadbasket" of an expanding Atlantic community. Doerflinger, Vigorous Spirit, p. 15.
242. On occasion, Head also bought empty containers or had them made. Thus, he got "Two Barels" from Artha [Arthur] Jones, and credited John Comins [Cummings?], "By hoopen some Tobs [putting metal hoops around wooden tubs]." Head may have used these containers for food or drink in his home or for storage of nails and other small items in his shop.When Head had no need of such containers, he would dispose of them. He sold John Prikett "an Empty Cask." Head Account Book, pp. 48 right [Comins], 75 left [Jones], 90 left [Prikett].
243. Head credited John Roberds £0-2-6, on 3/11/26, for the pound of chocolate. As he charged Thomas George [George] only £0-1-3, for half that amount, on 9/26/26, Head was not making a profit. The chocolate was simply one more medium of exchange, along with fabric, drink, soap, bleach, cash and a "Cofin," with which to acquire the large quantities of wood sawn by George. The butterscotches were credited to the account of Lawrence Boore, at £0-0-10, on 8/30/31. They were in partial payment for a stand debited to Boore, at £0-6-0, on 5/30/31. Head Account Book, pp. 73 right [Roberds], 89 left & right [Boore], 93 left & right [Georg]. Coincidentally, the price of a pound of chocolate was the same over twenty years later. See 6/4/47 credit given Sarah Lloyd by carpenter Joseph Webb, Webb Ledger, p. 5 right.
245. Credits to account of Hannah Turner, "she After becam Stampers Wife," Head Account Book, p. 66 [buckskin delivered by Stamper: 10/9/24, £0-5-6, & 2/2/25, £0-19-0; britches: 10/16/24, £0-14-0; gloves by the pair: 10/26/24, £0-2-4, & "omited" but recorded 7/29/25, £0-2-10].
247. Head Account Book, pp. 23 [Walter Luis debit], 25 [William Lucin debit], 51 right [John Hutten credit], 57 right [James Brown credit], 59 right [George Cunningham credit], 72 right [John Green credit], 74 right [William Crosewhit credit], 76 left [Thomas Georg debit], 83 right [John Guest credit], 85 left [Thomas Reeca credit], 87 left [John Richardson credit], 102 left [Moses Coats debit].
248. Head Account Book, pp. 72 right [Green], 92 right [Pound], 130 right [Griskam]. A "mantua," also called a "manteau," was"a loose gown worn by women in 17-18th c." The Oxford English Dictionary (London: Oxford University Press, 1897 et seq.), 6:141. Sarah Griscom, "living back of Thomas Byles, Pewterer, in Market Street, or near the Boar's Head, in Jones's (or Pewter Platter) Alley," advertised that she made "Very good Stays for Women and Children." Pennsylvania Gazette, March 12, 1741.
251. Head Account Book, pp. 2 [Joseph ____, 12/24/24], 38 [McCarl, 1720], 59 right [Cunningham, mounting 1725, shaving 1726], 74 right [Crosewhit, wig 5/11/25, mounting 12/27/26], 98 right [Townsend, 6/9/27]; Crossthwaite advertisements, Pennsylvania Gazette, June 23, 1730, December 5, 1734.
252. The first was bought from Peter Stelle, who was credited £10-10-0, on 6/23/25; the second from John Roberds, credited £8-10-0, on 10/22/25. Head also sold one horse, to Thomas Roberd (perhaps a relative of John), who was debited £9-0-0, on 3/18/27, "for which he [Thomas Roberd] gave me a bond." Head Account Book, pp. 73 right [John Roberds], 75 right [Stelle], 102 left [Thomas Roberd].
255. E.g., the £0-10-0 credited the account of "John Smith at noriss [Isaac Norris's] plantation," on 10/2/42, "By a Little Straw." Head Account Book, p. 71 right. Kalm observed a peculiar type of haystack while in Philadelphia: "I have mentioned before, that the cattle have no stables in winter or summer, but must go in open air, during the whole year. However, in Philadelphia, and in a few other places, I have seen that those people who made use of the latter kind of haystacks, viz. that with moveable roofs, commonly had built them so, that the hay was put a fathom or two above the ground, on a floor of boards, under which the cattle could stand in winter, when the weather was bad." Kalm, Travels, 2:106.
257. Head debited his son-n-law, Benjamin Hooton, £0-3-4, on 7/24/48, "To a Sader post - 10 foot long." Head Account Book, p. 138 left. Chestnut was supposed to be as good, but not found so by Kalm. In the absence of red cedar and chestnut, white and black oak were also used for fencing. Kalm described the appearance, woods used, and manufacture of such fences. Kalm, Travels, 1:91-92, 145-146.
258. John Roberds was debited £0-2-0, on 2/17/27, "To a hors hire one day." Joseph Townsend was credited £0-4-0, on 3/22/29, "By the hors hier 2 days." Cristhofer [Christopher] Thompson was charged £0-1-0, on 5/21/27, "To ye hors 1/2 a day." William Clar [Clare], however, got a special rate of £0-1-6, on 7/5/26, "To a Hors to Germantown." Head Account Book, pp. 19 [Clar], 73 left [Roberds], 98 right [Townsend], 105 left [Thompson].
259. Head Account Book, pp. 61 right [Duncen], 65 left [Canan], 73 left [Roberds], 77 left [Stretch]. The standard nature of horse hire charges may have resulted from regulation. The justices of Quarter Sessions regulated ordinary rates charged travelers, including drink and hay for their horses. Scharf and Westcott, History of Philadelphia, 1:206.
260. The £3-0-0 "womans Sadle" credited Banjamin Lee, on 2/14/21, was debited on the same date and same amount to Mickel Branin. Head Account Book, pp. 69 left [Branin], 117 right [Lee]. One contemporary whip maker was Israel Morris, who worked out of Joseph Saul's house. Pennsylvania Gazette, July 4, 1754, cited in Prime, Arts & Crafts, p. 181.
261. Head debited William Crosewhit's account £4-0-0, on 5/22/25, "To an order apon William Pascahl for Sadels;" and £2-0-0, on 4/2/26, "To an order apon Nichos. Ghiselno for sadles." Head Account Book, p. 74 right. Nicholas Ghiselin was a sadller by trade, who married Elizabeth Evans in Philadelphia, on 7/1/22. He died before his father, the celebrated Philadelphia Huegunot silversmith Cesar Ghiselin (1693-1733). Nicholas was buried on 10/3/32, dying intestate. Among his principal creditors was William Paschall. Harold E. Gillingham, "Cesar Ghiselin, Philadelphia's First Gold and Silversmith 1693-1733," Pennsylvania Magazine, 57:254-255. Others frequently involved in the saddlery trade had their accounts credited. Head Account Book, pp. 22 [John Dilen], 117 right [Banjamin Lee]. Dilen and Lee were also mentioned in the accounts of others as delivering saddles.
262. Head Account Book, pp. 35 & 36 [Jones]. There may be another reason that Head dealt with John Jones. A "John Jones" married Head's daughter Rebecca, on September 16, 1731. Familysearch.com. Head was also able to use riding gear, principally saddles, to debit the accounts of other customers and suppliers. Head Account Book, pp. 7 & 114 left [John Hains], 42 [Richard Hains], 69 left [Mickel Branin], 72 left [Robert Smoll], 84 left [Marchal Clark], 102 left [Moses Coats, Roberd Thomas]. Head also served as an intermediary in a leather transaction between tanner Samuel Hudson and cordwainer Matthew Burchfield, both of whom bought furniture from him. Head Account Book, pp. 7, 11 [both Hudson], 49 left & right [Burchfield]; Minutes of the Common Council, pp. 125 ["Matt Burchfield, Cordwainer" admitted freeman on May 20, 1717], 128 ["Samuel Hudson, Tanner" admitted freeman on May 27, 1717].